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Regicide The Kennedy Assassination

Jan 15 2020

Regicide

The Official Assassination

of John F. Kennedy

by

Gregory Douglas

Foreword

 

The assassination of President John Fitzgerald Kennedy in Dallas, Texas, on November 22, 1963, continues to generate an enormous amount of popular controversy, more so than any other historical happening in recorded memory. The killing took place in a major American city in full view of hundreds of people and in broad daylight, yet years after the event, a dispassionate overview of the incident is impossible to achieve. The act and its consequences are as cluttered as the dense Indian jungle that so thoroughly hides the gaudy tiger from the sight of its prey.

The initial stunned confusion in Dallas has continued, with much official connivance, into succeeding decades, with an immense proliferation of books, magazine articles, motion picture productions, and television dramas, which are equally divided between assaults on previous productions and the presentation of even more confusion, theory, and supposition.

One camp consists entirely of what can best be termed the “official version” and in the other camp are the “revisionist versions.” There is only one of the former and a multitude of the others.

There is no question in the minds of anyone that John F. Kennedy was shot dead in Dallas, Texas, in November of 1963. The real issue is who shot him and why.

Is the report of the official Warren Commission correct?[1] Was the President killed by a disaffected man who acted entirely alone? Was his subsequent murder perpetrated by another disaffected man who also acted entirely alone?

Are the legions of revisionists correct? Was the Kennedy assassination the result of a plot? And if there was a plot, who were the plotters and what were their motives?

The overwhelming majority of the public, who are the final arbiters of whatever may pass for historical truth, has, in the intervening years, come to believe less in the determined certainty of officialdom and more in the questions raised by those who cannot accept official dictums.

In a very strong sense, the Kennedy assassination marked an important watershed in the relationship between the American public and its elected and appointed officials. Before that event, what the government said was almost universally accepted as the truth. There was unquestioning and simplistic belief, and more, there was trust in the pronouncements from the Beltway and its numerous and often very slavish servants in academia and the American media. It is true, people would say, because it is printed in my newspaper and supported by important and knowledgeable savants.

That the media and academia might be influenced by, if not actually commanded by, the government rarely occurred to anyone outside of a small handful of chronic malcontents.

The questions that were raised by the Warren Commission’s lengthy and thoroughly disorganized report were certainly in many cases very important. That there were many errors in this hasty attempt to allay national anxieties is clearly evident, but in retrospect, and in view of recently disclosed evidence, these are more errors of commission than omission.

The Warren Report was prepared and released to the public not to encourage questioning but to silence it as quickly as possible. There are many cogent reasons for this desire for silence and acceptance, not the least of which was the urgent desire for self-preservation and the maintenance of the integrity of the governmental system.

In actuality, the American currency is not backed by gold or silver holdings but by the blind faith of the public. If the concept of unquestioning belief in governmental currency stability is questioned, economic chaos can be the result and this applies equally to government probity.

To quote from the title of the first and very important revisionist work on the Kennedy assassination, there was a great “rush to judgment” and a frantic desire on the part of the official establishment to completely bury not only the murdered President, but also any questions his killing might have engendered with him.

Was the primary reason for this desire for closure merely a desire to placate public opinion or were there other, and far more sinister, reasons for this rush to judgment?

Those who question the official chronicle have been severely hampered by the fact that all the records, documents, interviews, and other evidentiary material are securely under governmental custody and control. It is beyond the belief of any reasonable person to think that an official agency would release to the public any material that would bring the official judgment into question. This is not only institutional maintenance but also, all things in evidence now considered, a frantic effort at self-preservation.

Not all documents, however, lie under government control, and there exist reports that do not only question the Warren Report’s findings but are also of such a nature as to both thoroughly discredit it and, in the final analysis, bring it to ruin.

Such a historical land mine lay for years in the personal files of Robert Trumbull Crowley, once Deputy Director for Operations for the Central Intelligence Agency. Crowley, who had authored books on Soviet intelligence, died in October of 2000 after a long illness.

When Crowley retired from the CIA in the 1980s, he took a significant quantity of important historical documents with him and, prior to his death, gave a number of these to various historians with whom he occasionally cooperated.

Among these documents was a lengthy paper prepared by the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) in 1978 as a commentary on Soviet intelligence evaluations of the Kennedy assassination.

The Defense Intelligence Agency, a branch of the Department of Defense, specializes in the analysis of foreign military technical intelligence.

This document was considered highly sensitive, for reasons that shall shortly become very evident, and its distribution was limited to a handful of copies with severely restricted circulation.

Crowley had a copy of this explosive document because he had personal knowledge of the factors and personalities behind the assassination and had, in fact, prior professional knowledge of the information contained in the DIA secret paper.

The second and certainly even more important document is a 98 pages long paper entitled “OPERATION ZIPPER Conference Record.” This document is a long list of decisions and activities of various U.S. authorities in a project with the code name “Operation ZIPPER.”

The distribution of this document was restricted to five persons, one of them being R. T. Crowley, in whose papers a copy of it was found.

This book uses the official DIA Report and the “Operation ZIPPER” document as its framework. In addition to that, the author uses the notes he made during endless hours of conversation he had with R. T. Crowley in the years between 1993 and 1996, and has dug deeply into the great body of literature on the assassination of J. F. Kennedy to flesh out what has proven to be a very ugly skeleton. In sum, it puts sinews and flesh on the bones of a monster.

The loss of faith is a terrible matter and one can say after reading these papers and with bitter truth: “Who then will guard the guardians?”

 

Acknowledgments

It is generally the custom for beginning writers to thank anyone and everyone even remotely connected with his book. Book editors, typists, library personnel, former teachers, family members, and pets are all given their five seconds of fame (or far less depending upon the sales of the book).

However, that having been said, the author would like to offer the most sincere and grateful, albeit posthumous, thanks to the late Colonel Robert T. Crowley of Washington, D.C., and his co-worker, Colonel William Corson, USMC (United States Marine Corps), of Potomac, Maryland, for all of the very important advice and assistance they have rendered to the grateful author. Also their friend and co-worker, Joe Trento of Front Royal, Virginia, for his valuable commentary and excellent advice, especially concerning the activities of James Jesus Angleton.

As opposed to acknowledging others who aided in the actual preparation of this study, recognition ought to be given on the author’s part for research into American intelligence matters.

David Lifton’s work, Best Evidence,[2] is a brilliant analysis of the Kennedy autopsy; Thomas C. Reeves, A Question of Character[3] is one of the best revisionist views of the life and political career of John F. Kennedy; Thomas Dale Scott’s work, Deep Politics and the Death of JFK[4] is a sensible and studied work on the backgrounds of Kennedy adversaries; and Seymour Hersh’s work The Dark Side of Camelot[5] gives a far more detailed revisionist look into JFK and provides considerable background on his Soviet connection. Almost every book on the subject, regardless of how bizarre it might appear to the average reader, contains small nuggets of value to be mined by the thorough researcher.

Former CBS news director and documentary producer, Los Angeles-based Ted Landreth has done prodigies investigating certain highly sensitive CIA operations inside the United States.

Also, an important work is Gerald Posner’s Case Closed.[6] This work is an excellent overview and defense of the official establishment point of view. That the American media lavishly praised it when it appeared in 1993 is a commentary on the objectivity of the media.

Obituary

Tuesday, October 10, 2000: Page B06, Washington Post:

“Robert Trumbull Crowley

Senior CIA Officer

Robert Trumbull Crowley, 76, a senior CIA officer whose career spanned from the agency’s inception in 1947 until his retirement in the mid-1980s, died Oct. 8 at Sibley Memorial Hospital. He had congestive heart failure and dementia.

Mr. Crowley became assistant deputy director for operations, the second in command in the clandestine directorate of operations. After retiring, he co-wrote a book with former CIA intelligence officer and Marine Corps officer William R. Corson, “The New KGB: Engine of Soviet Power,” published by William Morrow in 1985.

Mr. Crowley, a Washington resident, was a Chicago native and attended the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, N.Y. He served in the Army in the Pacific during World War II and retired from the Army Reserve in 1986 as a lieutenant colonel.

Survivors include his wife since 1948, Emily Upton Crowley of Washington; a son, Greg Upton Crowley of Washington; and two granddaughters.”[7]

In 1996, Robert Crowley entered a Washington hospital for major surgery. It was believed that he might have cancer of the lungs. The operation was successful but Crowley, who had been suffering from short-term memory problems, slipped into a state of chronic dementia from which he never recovered.

Before entering the hospital, Crowley, known in the CIA as the “Crow,” sent off two packets of documents from his extensive files to the author of this book with instructions to return the papers if he survived the operation. After the operation, it was evident to Crowley’s family that he would do no more writing and I was told to keep the papers and not to return them.

As one of the most powerful men in the Central Intelligence Agency and one of the least known outside of the Agency, Crowley was involved in most of the important CIA operations during his tenure. His personal files are of great value to researchers and cover both foreign and domestic intelligence operations.

Among these papers was the above mentioned DIA Report, a 1978 in-depth analysis of a Soviet intelligence report on the assassination of President John Kennedy. At one time, the Russians were held suspect in this act, and in the intervening years, their intelligence organs had been compiling data in refutation of this thesis. It should be noted that Lee Oswald, the purported assassin, had defected to the Soviet Union and, while resident in that country, married the niece of an MVD[8] intelligence officer.

Although the DIA Report makes it very clear that Oswald was a source for the Office of Naval Intelligence and that his defection was spurious, his openly avowed Marxism, public support of the Communist government of Cuban dictator Fidel Castro, and his repeated pro-Communist utterances made him a very handy weapon with which to attack the Russians.

The DIA Report, signed by Army Colonel Vedder B. Driscoll, chief of the Soviet Intelligence division of the DIA, appears to be the first official analysis of the Kennedy assassination that does not follow the official line, and which survived the post-assassination shredding frenzy that seized the American intelligence community.[9]

Theories, opinions and arguments abound concerning the Kennedy assassination and while many authors will applaud Driscoll’s DIA Report, others will reject it. Rejection or acceptance depends entirely on what an author may have previously published on the subject.

The other surviving official paper, the already mentioned “Operation ZIPPER” document, will most likely cause an even more heated controversy, since it does not have a cover document and consists merely of a brief listing of persons and agencies involved, decisions made, and events that took place during and after the preparation of Kennedy’s assassination.

Over 2,500 works on the assassination have appeared in print to date but nothing approaches what can best be termed the “Driscoll Report” and the “ZIPPER Document” for brevity and accuracy. The reader is given a unique view of the events in Dallas and Washington post-November 22, 1963.

The facts behind the Kennedy assassination are found in the Driscoll Report and the ZIPPER Document. For the first time, the actual motives of those who organized and instigated the act are clearly and decisively exposed, as are the techniques of the actual shooting, the nature of the weapons used, and the means by which the shooters escaped.

These documents do not challenge the famous Warren Report that has been ridiculed by many and supported by few; they merely supersede it.

The ZIPPER Document reveals, most importantly, the names and official positions of those who directed the killers. For example, the man who instigated the attack was one of the highest level American intelligence officials, and the man to whom he entrusted the supervision of the assassins was someone who had been involved in one of the most important American intelligence-gathering actions against the Soviet Union, an operation that the Driscoll Report now reveals had been known to the Soviets even before it was launched! The fate of the shooters is also revealed; only one of them lived more than a month after Kennedy died.

In this work, rather than present the endlessly chewed arguments of others to dazzle or bore the reader, the reports are presented in excerpt (Driscoll) or in full (ZIPPER) with appropriate commentary.

This study is organized into a number of chapters. The assassination itself is covered by a translation of the Soviet intelligence report, followed by pertinent and parallel excerpts from the official Warren Commission Report and the Defense Intelligence Agency analysis. The observations of the author conclude each section.

The next chapters will cover the more important players. Again, first a Soviet report, followed by the pertinent sections of the Warren Report, the DIA analysis, and concluding with the author’s comments. The Warren Commission Report basically covered the actual assassination and the subsequent murder of the alleged assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald. Both the Soviet and Driscoll Reports contain additional material not covered in the Warren Commission Report.

Subsequent chapters addressing the real history of the Kennedy assassination are based mainly on the ZIPPER Document with some use of the Driscoll Report, and are backed by information the author received during his many conversations with R. T. Crowley.

Long years of suspicion, investigation and revisionist commentary have ended with the discovery and publication of the Driscoll Report and the ZIPPER Document from the papers of top CIA official, Robert Crowley.

The deadly international plots, assassinations of unpopular foreign politicians, active involvement in the world-wide drug market, ruthless manipulation of the United States government to include the office of the President, counterfeitings, the fomenting of revolts and bloody uprisings in nations friendly to the United States, the infiltration and control of the American and foreign print and film media, and the general belief that their opinions should dictate America’s domestic and foreign policy have led directly to such anti-American incidents as the murder of American citizens and such explosive outrages as the recent attack on the World Trade Center.

The Central Intelligence Agency, which likes to picture itself as the protective shield of the American people, has proven itself to be consistently wrong in its analysis of almost every problem presented to it, and has alienated by its actions a good part of the world which at one time had been neutral in its opinion of America if not sympathetic. It is beyond belief that a complicated, yearlong international plot against America, which culminated in the WTC attack and which involved hundreds of people, could not have been observed by the CIA. This is either an example of gross incompetence at best or connivance at worst.

The Crowley Papers give all of us a true understanding of the meaning of Lord Acton’s dictum, “Power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely.”

The Assassination

The following chapters will consist of facsimile reproductions of the DIA’s translation of the Soviet intelligence study, of its own analysis, and of quoted excerpts of the official Warren Commission Report, followed by commentary.

The Facts of the Assassination

The Soviet Intelligence Study (translation)

1. On 22 November, 1963, American President John Kennedy was shot and killed during a political motor trip through the Texas city of Dallas. The President was riding at the head of the procession in his official state car, seated in the right rear with his wife on his left side. Seated in front of him was the Governor of Texas and his wife, also on his left side. The vehicle was an open car without side or top protection of any kind. There was a pilot car in front, about a hundred feet, and the President’s car was flanked by motorcycle outriders located two to a side roughly parallel with the rear wheels of the State car.

2. The President and his party were driving at a speed of about 20 kilometers per hour through the built-up area of Dallas and greeted the many people lining the streets along his route. Security was supplied by the Secret Service supplemented by local police. There were two Secret Service agents in the front of the car. One was driving the car. Other agents were in cars following the Presidential vehicle and Dallas police on motorbikes were on both sides of the Presidential car but at the rear of it. There was a pilot car in front of the President’s car but it was at some distance away.

3. The course of the journey was almost past all the occupied area. The cars then turned sharply to the right and then again to the left to go to the motorway leading to a meeting hall where the President was to speak at a dinner. It is considered very bad security for such an official drive to decrease its speed or to make unnecessary turnings or stops. (Historical note: It was just this problem that led directly to positioning the Austrian Heir in front of waiting assassins at Sarajevo in 1914.) The route was set by agents of the Secret Service and published in the Dallas newspapers before the arrival of the President and his party.

4. After the last turning to the left, the cars passed a tall building on the right side of the street that was used as a warehouse for the storage of school books. This building was six stories tall and had a number of workers assigned to it. There were no official security people in this building, either on the roof or at the windows. Also, there were no security agents along the roadway on either side. All security agents were riding either in the Presidential car (two in the front) and in the following vehicles.

5. As the President’s state car passed this building, some shots were heard. The exact source and number of these shots was never entirely determined. Some observers thought that the shots came from above and behind while many more observers in the area stated that the shots came from the front and to the right of the car. There was a small area with a decorative building and some trees and bushes there and many saw unidentified people in this area. Many people standing in front of this area to watch the cars stated that shots came from behind them.

6. When the first shots were fired, the President was seen to lean forward and clutch at his throat with both hands. Immediately when this happened, the Secret Service driver of the President’s state car slowed down the vehicle until it was almost stopped. This was a direct breach of their training which stated that in such events where firing occurred, the driver of the President’s car would immediately drive away as quickly as possible.

7. At the same time as the first shot, there was a second one, this one from behind and above. This bullet struck the Governor, sitting in front of the President and slightly to his right, in the right upper shoulder. The bullet went downwards into the chest cavity, breaking ribs, struck his wrist and lodged in his left upper thigh. There were then two shots fired at the President’s car. The first shot initiated the action and this one appears to have hit the President in the throat. If so, it must have been fired from in front of the car, not behind it.

8. Right at that moment, there was one other shot. The shell obviously struck the President on the upper rear of the right side of his head, throwing him back and to the left. Also, at this time, blood, pieces of skull and brains could be seen flying to the left where the motorbike police guard was struck with this material on his right side and on the right side of his motorbike.

9. Immediately after this final shot, the driver then began to increase his speed and the cars all went at increasing speed down under the tunnel.

10. The fatally injured President and the seriously injured Governor were very quickly taken to a nearby hospital for treatment. The President was declared as dead and his body was removed, by force, to an aircraft and flown to Washington. The badly wounded Governor was treated at the hospital for his wounds and survived.

11. Within moments of the shots fired at the President, a Dallas motorcycle police officer ran into the book building and up to the second floor in the company of the manager of the establishment. Here, the policeman encountered a man later positively identified as one Lee Harvey Oswald, an employee of the book storage company. Oswald was drinking a Coca-Cola and appeared to be entirely calm and collected. (Later it was said that he had rushed down four flights of steps past other employees in a few moments after allegedly shooting the President. It is noted from the records that none of the other employees on the staircase ever saw Oswald passing them.) The elevator which moved freight and personnel between the floors was halted at the sixth floor and turned off so that it could not be recalled to persons below wishing to use it.

 

 

 

The Warren Commission Report

At 11:40 a.m., CST, on Friday, November 22, 1963, President John F. Kennedy, Mrs. Kennedy, and their party arrived at Love Field, Dallas, Tex. Behind them was the first day of a Texas trip planned 5 months before by the President, Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson, and John B. Connally, Jr., Governor of Texas. After leaving the White House on Thursday morning, the President had flown initially to San Antonio where Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson joined the party and the President dedicated new research facilities at the U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine. Following a testimonial dinner in Houston for U.S. Representative Albert Thomas, the President flew to Fort Worth where he spent the night and spoke at a large breakfast gathering on Friday.

Planned for later that day were a motorcade through downtown Dallas, a luncheon speech at the Trade Mart, and a flight to Austin where the President would attend a reception and speak at a Democratic fundraising dinner. From Austin he would proceed to the Texas ranch of the Vice President. [WCR, pp. 1-2.]

The Secret Service was told on November 8 that 45 minutes had been allotted to a motorcade procession from Love Field to the site of a luncheon planned by Dallas business and civic leaders in honor of the President. After considering the facilities and security problems of the several buildings, the Trade Mart was chosen as the luncheon site. Given this selection, and in accordance with the customary practice of affording the greatest number of people an opportunity to see the President, the motorcade route selected was a natural one. The route was approved by the local host committee and White House representatives on November 18 and publicized in the local papers starting on November 19. This advance publicity made it clear that the motorcade would leave Main Street and pass the intersection of Elm and Houston Streets as it proceeded to the Trade Mart by way of the Stemmons Freeway.

By midmorning of November 22, clearing skies in Dallas dispelled the threat of rain and the President greeted the crowds from his open limousine without the “bubbletop,” which was at that time a plastic shield furnishing protection only against inclement weather. To the left of the President in the rear seat was Mrs. Kennedy. In the jump seats were Governor Connally, who was in front of the President, and Mrs. Connally at the Governor’s left. Agent William R. Greer of the Secret Service was driving, and Agent Roy H. Kellerman was sitting to his right. [WCR, p. 2]

At the extreme west end of Main Street, the motorcade turned right on Houston Street and proceeded north for one block in order to make a left turn on Elm Street, the most direct and convenient approach to the Stemmons Freeway and the Trade Mart. As the President’s car approached the intersection of Houston and Elm Streets, there loomed directly ahead on the intersection’s northwest corner a seven story, orange brick warehouse and office building, the Texas School Book Depository. [WCR, p. 2]

The President’s car which had been going north made a sharp turn toward the southwest onto Elm Street. At a speed of about 11 miles per hour, it started down the gradual descent towards a railroad overpass under which the motorcade would proceed before reaching the Stemmons Freeway. The front of the Texas School Book Depository was now on the President’s right, and he waved to the crowd assembled there as he passed the building. Dealey Plaza—an open, landscaped area marking the western end of downtown Dallas—stretched out to the President’s left. A Secret Service agent riding in the motorcade radioed the Trade Mart that the President would arrive in 5 minutes.

Seconds later shots resounded in rapid succession. The President’s hands moved to his neck. He appeared to stiffen momentarily and lurch slightly forward in his seat. A bullet had entered the base of the back of his neck slightly to the right of the spine. It traveled downward and exited from the front of the neck, causing a nick in the left lower portion of the knot in the President’s necktie. Governor Connally had been facing towards the crowd on the right. He started to turn toward the left and suddenly felt a blow on his back. The Governor had been hit by a bullet which entered at the extreme right side of his back at a point below his right armpit. The bullet traveled through his chest in a downward and forward direction, exited below his right nipple, passed through his right wrist, which had been in his lap, and then caused a wound to his left thigh. The force of the bullet’s impact appeared to spin the Governor to his right, and Mrs. Connally pulled him down into her lap. Another bullet then struck President Kennedy in the rear portion of his head, causing a massive and fatal wound. The President fell to the left into Mrs. Kennedy’s lap. [WCR, p. 3]

The first person to see Oswald after the assassination was Patrolman M. L. Baker of the Dallas Police Department. Baker was riding a two-wheeled motorcycle behind the last press car of the motorcade.

Baker testified that he entered the lobby (of the Texas Book Depository) and “spoke out and asked where the stairs or elevator was*** and this man, Mr. Truly, spoke up and says, it seems to me like he says ‘I am a building manager. Follow me, officer, and I will show you.’”

Meanwhile, Truly had run up several steps towards the third floor. Missing Baker, he came back to find the officer in the doorway to the lunchroom “facing Lee Harvey Oswald.” Baker turned to Truly and said, “Do you know this man, does he work here?” Truly replied, “Yes.” Baker stated later that the man did not seem to be out of breath; he seemed calm. [WCR, p. 152]

That Oswald descended by stairway from the sixth floor to the second-floor lunchroom is consistent with the movements of the two elevators, which would have provided the other possible means of descent. When Truly, accompanied by Baker, ran to the rear of the first floor, he was certain that both elevators, which occupy the same shaft, were on the fifth floor. In the few seconds which elapsed while Baker and Truly ran from the first to the second floor, neither of these slow elevators could have descended from the fifth to the second floor. Furthermore, no elevator was at the second floor when they arrived there. [WCR, p. 153]

The DIA Analysis

18. The Dallas trip had been in train since late July of 1963. Texas was considered to be a key state in the upcoming 1964 Presidential elections. It was the disqualification of over 100,000 Texas votes, in conjunction with the known fraudulent voting in Chicago in 1960 that gave President Kennedy and his associates a slim margin of victory.

19. The actual route of Kennedy’s drive through downtown Dallas was made known to the local press on Tuesday, November 19. The sharp right turn from Main St. onto Houston and then the equally sharp left turn onto Elm was the only way to get to the on ramp to the Stemmons Freeway. A traffic divider on Main St. precluded the motorcade from taking the direct route, from Main St. across Houston and thence right to the Stemmons Freeway exit.

20. Just after the President’s car passed the Texas Book Depository, a number of shots were fired. There were a total of three shots fired at the President. The first shot came from the right front, hitting him in the neck. This projectile did not exit the body. The immediate reaction by the President was to clutch at his neck and say, “I have been hit!” He was unable to move himself into any kind of a defensive posture because he was wearing a restrictive body brace.

21. The second shot came from above and behind the Presidential car, the bullet striking Texas Governor Connally in the upper right shoulder, passing through his chest and exiting sharply downwards into his left thigh.

22. The third, and fatal shot, was also fired at the President from the right front and from a position slightly above the car. This bullet, which was fired from a .223 weapon, struck the President above the right ear, passed through the right rear quadrant of his head and exited towards the left. Pieces of the President’s skull and a large quantity of brain matter was blasted out and to the left of the car. Much of this matter struck a Dallas police motorcycle outrider positioned to the left rear of the Presidential car.

23. Photographic evidence indicates that the driver, SA Greer, slowed down the vehicle when shots were heard, in direct contravention of standing Secret Service regulations.

24. Reports that the initial hit on the President came from above and behind are false and misleading. Given the position of the vehicle at the time of impact and the altitude of the alleged shooter, a bullet striking the back of the President’s neck would have exited sharply downward as did the projectile fired at Governor Connally purportedly from the same shooter located in the same area of the sixth floor of the Texas Book Depository.

25. The projectile that killed the President was filled with mercury. When such a projectile enters a body, the sudden decrease in velocity causes the mercury to literally explode the shell. This type of projectile is designed to practically guarantee the death of the target and is a method in extensive use by European assassination teams.

26. The disappearance of Kennedy’s brain and related post mortem material from the U.S. National Archives was motivated by an official desire not to permit further testing which would certainly show the presence of mercury in the brain matter.

27. Official statements that the fatal shot was fired from above and behind are totally incorrect and intended to mislead. Such a shot would have blasted the brain and blood matter forward and not to the left rear. Also, photographic evidence indicates that after the fatal shot, the President was hurled towards his left, against his wife who was seated to his immediate left.

28. The so-called “magic bullet” theory, i.e., a relatively pristine, fired, Western Cartridge 6.5 Mannlicher-Carcano projectile produced in evidence, is obviously an official attempt to justify its own thesis. This theory, that a projectile from above and behind struck the President in the upper back, swung up, exited his throat, gained altitude and then angled downwards through the body of Governor Connally, striking bone and passing through muscle mass and emerging in almost undamaged condition is a complete impossibility. The bullet in question was obtained by firing the alleged assassination weapon into a container of water.

29. Three other such projectiles were recovered in similar undamaged condition. One of these was produced for official inspection and was claimed to have been found on Governor Connally’s stretcher at Parkland Hospital. As a goodly portion of the projectile was still in the Governor’s body (where much of it remained until his death some years later), this piece of purported evidence should be considered as nothing more than an official “plant.”

Author’s Comments

Almost all of the revisionist works on the Kennedy assassination deal with forensics. The main, and only, purpose for the existence of the Warren Commission was to firmly establish that a lone individual who had no accomplices had shot President Kennedy. Any evidence in existence at the time the commission sat that furthered this thesis was used; any evidence that would refute their thesis was ignored.

Oswald, the lone individual with no accomplices, had to have shot the President, and Governor Connally, with a surplus Italian Army 6.5-mm Mannlicher-Carcano rifle equipped with a cheap telescopic sight. He had to have fired from the sixth floor of a building, down at a moving target and have fired three shots in a five-second period of time. The Carcano was a very clumsy bolt-action rifle. The turned-down bolt handle was difficult to manipulate and the field of vision of the scope was so small as to virtually render it useless against a moving target.[10]

Tests by numerous firearms experts were never able to duplicate either the rate of fire or the alleged accuracy of the weapon purported to have been the sniper’s only weapon.[11] While the muzzle velocity of the 6.5-mm round tip bullet was very low, nevertheless, if it hit a human being within a reasonable distance, it could inflict a fatal shot.

The “magic bullet” thesis is a piece of impossible nonsense that nevertheless was eagerly accepted and promulgated by the Warren Commission and, decades after the event, is still shrilly supported by those members of the media who have a vested interest in doing so. The nearly pristine bullet conveniently planted on a stretcher at Parkland Hospital could never have hit or passed into anything other than a container of water.

Lee Harvey Oswald

The Soviet Intelligence Study (translation)

18. During the course of the interrogations, Oswald was repeatedly led up and down very crowded corridors of the police headquarters with no thought of security. This is an obvious breach of elementary security that was noted at the time by reporters. It now appears that Oswald’s killer was seen and photographed in the crowds in the building.

19. The American Marine defector, Lee Harvey Oswald, entered the Soviet Union in October of 1959. Initially, Oswald, who indicated he wanted to “defect” and reside in the Soviet Union, was the object of some suspicion by Soviet intelligence authorities. He was at first denied entrance, attempted a “suicide” attempt and only when he was more extensively interrogated by competent agents was it discovered that he was in possession of material that potentially had a great intelligence value.

20. Oswald, who as a U.S. Marine, was stationed at the Atsugi airfield in Japan, had been connected with the Central Intelligence Agency’s U-2 intelligence-gathering aircraft program and was in possession of technical manuals and papers concerning these aircraft and their use in overflights of the Soviet Union.

21. The subject proved to be most cooperative and a technical analysis of his documentation indicated that he was certainly being truthful with Soviet authorities. In addition to the manuals, Oswald was able to supply Soviet authorities with a wealth of material, much of which was unknown and relatively current. As a direct result of analysis of the Oswald material, it became possible to intercept and shoot down a U2 aircraft flown by CIA employee Gary Powers.

22. On the basis of the quality of this material, Oswald was granted asylum in the Soviet Union and permitted to settle in Minsk under the supervision of the Ministry of the Interior. This was partially to reward him for his cooperation and also to remove him from the possible influence of American authorities at the Embassy in Moscow.

23. Oswald worked in a radio factory, was given a subsidized apartment in Minsk and kept under constant surveillance. He was very pro-Russian, learned to speak and read the language, albeit not with native fluency, and behaved himself well in his new surroundings.

24. Although Oswald was a known homosexual, he nevertheless expressed an interest in women as well and his several casual romantic affairs with both men and women were duly noted.

25. Oswald became involved with Marina Nikolaevna Prusakova, the niece of a Minsk-based intelligence official. He wished to marry this woman who was attractive but cold and ambitious. She wished to leave the Soviet Union and emigrate to the United States for purely economic reasons. Since his marrying a Soviet citizen under his circumstances was often most difficult, Oswald began to speak more and more confidentially with his intelligence contacts in Minsk. He finally revealed that he was an agent for the United States Office of Naval Intelligence and had been recruited by them to act as a conduit between their office and Soviet intelligence.

26. The official material on the CIA operations was entirely authentic and had been supplied to Oswald by his controllers at the ONI. It was apparent, and Oswald repeatedly stated, that the CIA was completely unaware of the removal of sensitive documents from their offices. This removal, Oswald stated, was effected by the ONI personnel stationed at Atsugi air field. Oswald was unaware of the reasons for this operation but had been repeatedly assured that the mission was considered of great national importance and that if he proved to be successful, he would be afforded additional and profitable future employment. It appears that Oswald was considered to be a one time operative and was expendable. His purpose was to establish a reputation as a pro-Russian individual who would then “defect” to the Soviet Union and pass over the U2 material. He did not seem to realize at the time he “defected” that once he had been permitted to live in the Soviet Union, on an official governmental subsidy, returning to America would be very difficult, if not impossible.

27. Now, with his romantic, and very impractical, attachment to Prusakova, he was being pressured by her to marry and then take her with him back to the United States. Oswald was informed that this was not a possible option for him. He became very emotional and difficult to deal with but finally made the suggestion that if he were allowed to marry and return to the United States, he would agree to work in reality for the Soviet Union.

28. After referring this matter to higher authority, it was decided to accede to Oswald’s requests, especially since he was of no further use to Soviet intelligence and might well be of some service while resident in America.

29. Marriage was permitted and his return was expedited both by the Soviet authorities and the Americans who were informed, via a letter from Oswald, that he was in possession of intelligence material of value to them. This valuable information was duly given to him, a reversal to be noted on his original mission!

30. Oswald was given prepared information of such a nature as to impress American intelligence and permitted to contact intelligence officials in the American Embassy in Moscow. He was then permitted by the Americans to return to the United States with his new wife.

31. In America, Oswald no longer worked with the ONI because he was not able to further assist them. Besides, he was viewed as dangerous because he had knowledge of the ONI theft and use of CIA documents.

32. While in America, Oswald then worked as a paid informant for the Federal Bureau of Investigation who had contacted him when he returned and requested his assistance with domestic surveillance against pro-Soviet groups. He was assigned, in New Orleans, the task of infiltrating the anti-Castro groups which were nominally under the control of the CIA.

33. It is noted that there exists a very strong rivalry between the FBI and the CIA. The former is nominally in charge of domestic counterintelligence and the latter in charge of foreign intelligence. They have been fighting for power ever since the CIA was first formed in 1947. Oswald has stated that the FBI was aware of this ONI-sponsored defection with stolen CIA U2 documents but this is not a proven matter.

34. Later, Oswald was transferred to Dallas, Texas, by the FBI and he then secured a position at a firm which dealt in very secret photographic matters. Here, he was able to supply both the FBI and Soviet intelligence with identical data.

35. FBI reports, kept secret, show clearly that Oswald was paid by the FBI as an informant.

36. In New Orleans, a center of Cuban insurgent activity, Oswald was in direct contact with FBI officials and worked for a Guy Bannister, former FBI agent. Oswald infiltrated the ranks of Cuban insurgents and reported his findings to the FBI .
44. Oswald was a part of the FBI surveillance of the Cuban insurgents in the New Orleans area.

45. Oswald made a number of public appearances passing out pro-Castro leaflets in order to ingratiate himself with the insurgents.

46. At the FBI request, a local television station filmed Oswald passing out these leaflets and had this film shown on local stations in order to enhance Oswald’s  image. When his mission was finished, Oswald was then sent to Dallas to observe and penetrate the Russian colony there.

 

The Warren Commission Report[12]

Lee Harvey Oswald was openly committed to Marxist ideology; he defected to the Soviet Union in 1959, and resided there until June of 1962, eventually returning to the United States with a Russian wife. [WCR, p. 254]

According to Oswald’s diary he attempted suicide when he learned his application for citizenship had been denied. [WCR, p. 260]

While in Atsugi, Japan, Oswald studied the Russian language, perhaps with some help from an officer in his unit who was interested in Russian and used to “talk about it” with Oswald occasionally. [WCR, p. 257]

He may have begun to study the Russian language when he was stationed in Japan, which was intermittently from August 1957 to November 1958. [WCR, p. 256]

According to Oswald’s “Historic Diary” and the documents furnished to the Commission by the Soviet Government, Oswald was not told that he had been accepted as a resident of the Soviet Union until about January 4, 1960. Although November 13 and 16 Oswald informed Aline Mosby and Priscilla Johnson that he had been granted permission to remain in the country indefinitely, the diary indicates that at that time he had been told only that he could remain “until some solution is found with what to do with me.” [WCR, p. 265]

Once he was accepted as a resident alien in the Soviet Union, Oswald was given considerable benefits which ordinary Soviet citizens in his position in society did not have. The “Historic Diary” recites that after Oswald was informed that he could remain in the Soviet Union and he was being sent to Minsk he was given 5,000 rubles by the “Red Cross*** for expenses.” He used 2,200 rubles to pay his hotel bill and another 150 rubles for a train ticket. [WCR, p. 269]

[…] about 6 weeks after his arrival he did receive an apartment, very pleasant by Soviet standards, for which he was required to pay only 60 rubles ($6.00) a month. Oswald considered the apartment “almost rent free.” Oswald was given a job in the “Byelorussian Radio and Television Factory,” where his pay on a per piece basis ranged from 700 to 900 rubles ($70-$90) a month. [WCR, p. 269]

The Commission has also assumed that it is customary for Soviet intelligence agencies to keep defectors under surveillance during their residence in the Soviet Union, through periodic interviews of neighbors and associates of the defector. Oswald once mentioned that the Soviet police questioned his neighbors occasionally.

Moreover, it is from Oswald’s personal writings alone that the Commission has learned that he received supplementary funds from the Soviet “Red Cross.” In the notes he made during the return trip to the United States Oswald recognized that the “Red Cross” subsidy had nothing to do with the well-known International Red Cross. He frankly stated that the money had come from the “MVD.” [WCR, p. 272]

Marina Oswald said that by the time she met him in March 1961 he spoke the language well enough so that at first she thought he was from one of the Baltic areas of her country, because of his accent. She stated that his only defects were that his grammar was sometimes incorrect and that his writing was never good. [WCR, p. 257]

Oswald’s marriage to Marina Prusakova on April 30, 1961, is itself a fact meriting consideration. A foreigner living in Russia cannot marry without the permission of the Soviet Government. [WCR, p. 274]

When Oswald arrived at the Embassy in Moscow, he met Richard E. Snyder, the same person with whom he had dealt in October of 1959. Primarily on the basis of Oswald’s interview with Snyder on Monday, July 10, 1961, the American Embassy concluded that Oswald had not expatriated himself. On the basis of this tentative decision, Oswald was given back his American passport, which he had surrendered in 1959. The document was due to expire in September 1961, however, and Oswald was informed that its renewal would depend upon the ultimate decision by the Department of State on his expatriation. On July 11, Marina Oswald was interviewed at the Embassy and the steps necessary for her to obtain an American visa were begun. In May 1962, after 15 months of dealing with the Embassy, Oswald’s passport was ultimately renewed and permission for his wife to enter the United States was granted. [WCR, p. 277]

The Director of the FBI J. Edgar Hoover, Assistant to the Director Alan H. Belmont, FBI agents John W. Fain and John L. Quigley, who interviewed Oswald, and FBI Agent James P. Hosty, Jr., who was in charge of his case at the time of the assassination, have testified before the Commission. All declared, in substance, that Oswald was not an informant or agent of the FBI, that he did not act in any other capacity for the FBI, and that no attempt was made to recruit him in any capacity. [WCR, p. 327]

On October 4. 1963, Oswald applied for a position with the Padgett Printing Corp., which was located at 1313 Industrial Boulevard, several blocks from President Kennedy’s parade route. Oswald favorably impressed the plant superintendent who checked his prior job references, one of which was Jaggars-Chiles-Stovall, the firm where Oswald had done photography work from October 1962 to April 1963. [WCR, p. 246]

The DIA Analysis

30. Soviet commentary on Oswald is basically verified from both KGB and CIA sources. Oswald, however, was not being run by the ONI (note here that the USMC is under the control of the USN and that ONI would be the appropriate agency of initial contact) but instead by the CIA. Their personnel files indicate that Oswald was initially recruited by ONI for possible penetration of the very pervasive Japanese communist intelligence organization. Atsugi base was a very important target for these spies.

31. Because of a shift in their policy, the CIA found it expedient to exploit their U2 surveillance of the Soviet Union as a political rather than an intelligence operation.

32. The Eisenhower administration’s interest in the possibility of achieving a rapprochement with the Soviet Government created a situation that might have proven disastrous to the CIA continued functions.

33. Internal CIA documents show very clearly that as their very existence was dependent on a continuation of the Cold War, any diminution of East-West hostility could easily lead to their down-sizing and, more important, to their loss of influence over the office of the President and also of U.S. foreign policy.

34. It was proposed, according to top level CIA reports, to somehow use their own U2 flights to create an increase in tension that could lead to a frustration of any detente that might result from a lessening of international tensions.

35. It was initially thought that certain compromising documents could be prepared, sent to the CIA base at Atsugi, Japan, and then somehow leaked to the aggressive Japanese communists. However, it was subsequently decided that there was a strong possibility that the documents might not be forwarded to Soviet Russia and kept in Japan for use in the anti-West/anti-war domestic campaigns.

36. CIA personnel stationed at Atsugi conceived a plan to then arrange for select documents to be given directly to the Soviets via an American defector. It was at this point that Oswald’s name was brought up by an ONI man. A CIA evaluation of Oswald convinced them that he would be the perfect defector. Psychological profiles of Oswald convinced them that he was clever, pro-Marxist, a person of low self-esteem as manifested in his chronic anti-social attitudes coupled with homosexual behavior.

37. As Oswald had developed a strong friendship with his ONI control, it was decided to allow him to think that he was working for the U.S. Navy rather than the CIA. (Note: This has always been a hallmark of CIA clandestine operations. Source agents are always considered expendable by that agency and their record of abandonment of these non-CIA agents if felt necessary is well-known to the intelligence community.)

38. Oswald was told that he was performing a “special, vitally important” mission for the ONI and would be given a very good paying official position when he “successfully returned” from the Soviet Union. CIA and ONI reports indicate that he was never expected to return to the United States after he had fulfilled his function of passing the desired documentation to the Soviet intelligence community.

39. The subsequent interception and shooting down by the Soviets of a U2 piloted by CIA agent Gary F. Powers using the leaked CIA material was sufficient to wreck the projected Eisenhower/Khrushchev meetings and harden the Soviet leader’s attitude towards the West.

40. It should be noted that the Powers U2 was equipped with a delayed action self-destruct device, designed to be activated by the pilot upon bailing out. This device was intended to destroy any classified surveillance material on the aircraft. In the Powers aircraft, the device was later disclosed to have been altered to explode the moment the pilot activated it. This would have resulted in the destruction of both the pilot and his aircraft.

41. After his return to the United States, Oswald was a marked man. He was a potential danger to the CIA, whose unredacted personnel reports indicate that Oswald was considered to be unstable, hostile, intelligent and very frustrated. He was, in short, a loose cannon.

42. While resident in Dallas, Oswald became acquainted with George S. DeMohrenschildt, a CIA operative. DeMohrenschildt, a Balt, had family connections both in Poland and Russia, had worked for the German Ausland Abwehr and later the SD during the Second World War. He “befriended” Oswald and eventually an intimate physical relationship developed between the two men. This infuriated Marina Oswald and their already strained relationship grew even worse. She had come to America expecting great financial rewards and instead found poverty, two children and a sexually cold husband.

43. It was DeMohrenschildt’s responsibility to watch Oswald, to establish a strong inter-personal relationship with him and to learn what information, if any, Oswald might possess that could damage the CIA if it became known.

44. The CIAs subsequent use of Oswald as a pawn in the assassination was a direct result of this concern

Author’s comments

On November 25, 1963, three days after Kennedy’s assassination, U.S. Deputy Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach, later a high Department of State official under Lyndon Johnson, wrote the following memorandum to Bill Moyers, aide to President Lyndon Johnson:

“It is important that all of the facts surrounding President Kennedy’s assassination be made public in a way which will satisfy people in the United States and abroad that all the facts have been told and that a statement to this effect be made now.

1. The public must be satisfied that Oswald was the assassin; that he did not have confederates who are still at large; and that the evidence was such that he would have been convicted at trial.

2. Speculation about Oswald’s motivation ought to be cut off, and we should have some basis for rebutting thought that this was a Communist conspiracy or (as the Iron Curtain press is saying) a right-wing conspiracy to blame it on the communists. Unfortunately the facts on Oswald seem too pat—too obvious (Marxist, Cuba, Russian wife, etc.). The Dallas police have put out statements on the Communist conspiracy theory, and it was they who were in charge when he was shot and thus silenced.

3. The matter has been handled thus far with neither dignity nor conviction. Facts have been mixed with rumor and speculation. We can scarcely let the world see us totally in the image of the Dallas police when our President is murdered.

I think this objective may be satisfied by making public as soon as possible a complete and thorough FBI report on Oswald and the assassination. This may run into the difficulty of pointing to inconsistencies between this report and statements by Dallas police officials. But the reputation of the Bureau is such that it may do the whole job.”[13]

On November 29, FBI Director Hoover wrote an in-house memo that, in part, stated:

“I told him [President Johnson] I thought it would be very bad to have a rash of investigations. He then indicated the only way to stop it is to appoint a high-level committee to evaluate my report and tell the House and Senate not to go ahead with the investigation. I stated that would be a three-ring circus.”[14]

And, in fact, the reputation of the Bureau was such that the whole job was well and truly accomplished. The FBI was in sole charge of assembling evidence for the Warren Commission and, almost simultaneously with the Katzenbach letter, Director Hoover had been committing himself on paper to express his firm determination that Oswald, and Oswald alone, was responsible for the assassination.

This determination was reflected in a flood of teletypes from FBI headquarters to the agency offices in Dallas, New Orleans, Miami, and Chicago. Regardless of what information was uncovered by local agents, all of it had to be given to the local agent-in-charge who then forwarded it to Washington. There, the numerous reports on Oswald’s activities and personal connections, along with reports on the Chicago mob, the CIA activities in Louisiana and Florida, and the late President and his activities and personal connections, were skillfully tailored to present a seamless series of reports, interviews, photographic and other forensic evidence for presentation to the waiting commission.

Any witness statements that contradicted the official version of events were excluded from this presentation, as were photographs that might have contradicted the lone-assassin theory.

The Soviet intelligence report mentions the discovery of Oswald in the second floor employee’s lounge by a Dallas police officer immediately after the shooting. It is commented by them, and reflected in the official report, that Oswald appeared to be very calm and certainly not out of breath as he would have been from running down four flights of steps only moments before. Further, other employees of the Texas Book Depository who had been using the stairs had not seen Oswald rush down past them. He could not have used the building’s elevators to go from his work area on the sixth floor to the lunchroom because persons unknown stopped one on the sixth floor and the other was on another floor. There were no elevators stopped on the second floor near the employee lunchroom.

The forensics have been equally confusing. Dallas Deputy Sheriff Seymour Weitzman was one of three deputy sheriffs who discovered a rifle on the sixth floor of the Book Depository. Weitzman was a firearms expert and owned two gun shops. He initially, and positively, identified the rifle as a German Mauser, 7.65-millimeter weapon. This is the so-called Argentine Mauser, which was manufactured by the Germans for the Argentine army. Unlike later models of the Mauser, it has a straight bolt handle and the top of the receiver is plainly marked with the coat of arms of Argentina. The Argentine Mauser, a very well built and easy to use weapon, had been offered as military surplus to the buying public for some years previously and was easily available to collectors, gun shops, and hunters.

The physical differences between the 7.65-mm Argentine Mauser surplus rifle and the 6.5-mm Italian Mannlicher-Carcano surplus rifle are very evident and no one with the professional background of Deputy Weitzman could possibly mistake one for the other.

In his book, Case Closed, New York author and avid Warren Commission supporter Gerald Posner states:

“Seymour Weitzman and Luke Mooney, two Dallas policemen [sic], thought at first glance that the rifle was a 7.65 [mm] bolt action Mauser. Although the officers quickly admitted their mistake, that initial misidentification led to speculation that a different gun was found on the sixth floor and that Oswald’s Carcano was later swapped for the murder weapon. There are considerable similarities between a bolt-action Mauser and a Carcano. Firearms experts say they are easy to confuse without a proper exam.” [Emphasis added][15]

Aside from his slavish adherence to the conclusions of the Warren Commission Report, Posner has obviously no knowledge of firearms whatsoever. The immediate visual differences between the two weapons are very clear and obvious. The Carcano has a distinctive box magazine protruding in front of the trigger guard and the Mauser has none. The Mauser has a straight bolt handle and the Carcano has a turned-down bolt handle.[16]

Weitzman was a gun dealer and both surplus weapons were very common in the trade at the time of the assassination. The supporting comments by Posner attributed to government experts are obviously self-serving, like the majority of such statements found in the Warren Commission Report, and have absolutely no probative value whatsoever.

After the Mauser was turned in to local authorities, it suddenly was transformed into a Carcano rifle, one that allegedly had been purchased by Oswald using an alias. The Mauser vanished from the sight of living men but the Carcano was presented to the world as the murder weapon.

The so-called “magic bullet” was certainly fired from the suspected Carcano but by whom, and when, is certainly not known at this remove. Because of the pristine condition of the bullet, it is clearly evident that it had never, under any remote circumstances, been fired into or passed through a human body.

In his November 29, 1963 report, FBI Director Hoover said:

“I said no, that three shots were fired at the President and we have them. I stated that our ballistic experts were able to prove the shots were fired by this gun; that the President was hit by the first and third bullets and the second hit the Governor; that there were three shots; that one complete bullet rolled out of the President’s head; that it tore a large part of the President’s off; that in trying to massage his heart on the way into the hospital they loosened the bullet which fell on the stretcher and we have that.”[17]

When he was arrested, Oswald proclaimed to the media that he was a patsy and had nothing to do with the killing of John F. Kennedy. Katzenbach’s dictum that the evidence had to be such as to secure a conviction was certainly quickly and officially implemented.

Since Oswald was very shortly, and most conveniently, dead, all manner of innuendo, deliberate error, and patently manufactured evidence was put together into a pastiche that never needed to be examined and cross-examined in a court of law. Oswald had been tried and found publicly guilty in absentia, and in the event that there existed other, even more provable suspects, they were entirely safe in the knowledge that they had escaped whatever manipulated creativity had passed for the process of justice and were certainly well protected.

The few works that support the findings of the Warren Commission contain a number of errors, which strongly indicate that their authors have done little research and have no genuine understanding of their subjects. As a case in point, referring once again to the Posner book, this author shows an appalling lack of knowledge of the Soviet intelligence structure in the 1950s and 1960s.

Posner comments on a statement allegedly made by a faux Soviet defector that the uncle of Marina Oswald was “MVD. It’s like being a local policeman, nothing more. He was completely unimportant.”[18] At another point, Posner shows a picture of Oswald and his wife’s relatives with the comment that Colonel Ilya Vasillyevich Prusakova, her uncle, was mistakenly believed to have been a KGB officer when he was “actually the equivalent of a local U.S. policeman.”[19]

Posner is referring here to the false Soviet defector Nosenko who was sent by the Soviet government to the United States immediately after the assassination to allay American fears that the Soviets had been involved with the Kennedy assassination via Oswald. He very obviously had no knowledge of the intelligence agencies he purported to have served. The MVD was, at that time, the name of the Soviet secret police controlled by the State Security Committee. It was later renamed into KGB.[20] A serving colonel in the Minsk office of the MVD was most certainly not the “equivalent of a local U.S. policeman.”

The Warren Report and its supporters have attached a considerable amount of importance to the comments and very supportive testimony of Oswald’s Russian wife, Marina. On this subject, Hoover wrote in his November 29 memo:

“I advised the President that his wife had been very hostile, would not cooperate and speaks only Russian; that yesterday she said, if we could give assurance she would be allowed to remain in the country, she would cooperate; and that I told our agents to give that assurance and sent a Russian-speaking agent to Dallas last night to interview her.”[21]

Jack Rubenstein (“Ruby”)

Soviet Intelligence Study (translation)

47. Two days after the shooting of the American President, the alleged assassin, Oswald was shot to death in the basement of the Dallas Police Department while he was being transferred to another jail. On the day of the assassination, November 22, FBI Chief Hoover notified the authorities in Dallas that Oswald should be given special security.

48. This killing was done in the presence of many armed police officers by a known criminal and associate of the American Mafia named Jack Rubenstein, or “Ruby” as he was also known. “Ruby” had a long past of criminal association with the Mafia in Chicago, Illinois, a major area of gangster control in America. “Ruby” had once worked for the famous Al Capone and then for Sam Giancana. This man was head of the Chicago mob at the time of the assassination.

49. “Ruby” was the owner of a drinking establishment in Dallas that specialized in dancing by naked women and was also a close friend of many police officers in Dallas. “Ruby” had been seen and photographed in the Dallas police department while Oswald was being interrogated. It should be noted here that suspect Oswald was very often taken by Dallas police out into the completely unguarded hallways of the building and in the presence of many persons unknown to the police. This is viewed as either an attempt to have Oswald killed or a very incompetent and stupid breach of basic security.

50. The timing by “Ruby” of his entrance into the guarded basement was far too convenient to be accidental. Also, the method of his shooting of Oswald showed a completely professional approach. “Ruby” stepped out from between two policeman holding a revolver down along his leg to avoid detection. As he stepped towards the suspect, “Ruby” raised his right hand with the revolver and fired upwards into Oswald’s body. The bullet severed major arteries and guaranteed Oswald’s death.

51. Although “Ruby” subsequently pretended to be mentally disturbed, his actions showed professional calculation to a degree. This play-acting was continued into his trial and afterwards. “Ruby” was convicted of the murder of Oswald and sentenced to death. He died in prison of cancer in January of 1967 after an appeal from his sentence had been granted by the court judge. Information indicates that he was given a fatal injection.

52. “Ruby’s” statements should not be confused with his actions. He was a professional criminal, had excellent connections with the Dallas police, had been involved with activities in Cuba and gun running into that country and some evidence has been produced to show that he and Oswald had knowledge of each other.

53. Like Oswald, “Ruby” too had homosexual activities and one public witness firmly placed Oswald in “Ruby’s” club prior to the assassination.

54. In view of later developments and disclosures, the use of a Chicago killer with local Mafia connections to kill Oswald is not surprising. Stories of “Ruby’s” eccentricity were highlighted by American authorities to make it appear that he, like suspect Oswald, was an eccentric, single individual who acted out of emotion and not under orders.

55. As in the case of Oswald, there was never a proven motive for “Ruby’s” acts. Oswald had no reason whatsoever to shoot the President, had never committed any proven acts of violence. Although he was purported to have shot at a fascist General, it was badly presented and in all probability was a “red herring” to “prove” Oswald’s desire to shoot people. “Ruby”, a professional criminal with a long record of violence, claimed he shot Oswald to “protect” the President’s wife from testifying. This statement appears to be an obvious part of “Ruby’s” attempt to defend himself by claiming to be mad.

56. It is obvious that “Ruby” killed Oswald to silence him. Since Oswald was not involved in the killing of the President, continued interrogation of him leading to a court trial would have very strongly exposed the weakness of the American government’s attempt to blame him for the crime.

57. Silencing Oswald promptly was a matter of serious importance for the actual killers.

58. That Oswald could not be convicted with the evidence at hand, his removal was vital. He could then be tried and convicted in public without any danger.

The Warren Commission Report

Concerned that there might be an attempt on Oswald’s life, FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover sent a message to [Dallas Police] Chief Curry on November 22 through Special Agent Manning C. Clements of the FBI’s Dallas office, urging that Oswald be afforded the utmost security. Curry does not recall receiving the message. [WCR, p. 225]

Jack Ruby shot Lee Harvey Oswald at 11:21 a.m., on Sunday, November 24, 1963, shortly after Ruby entered the basement of the Dallas Police Department. Almost immediately, speculation arose that Ruby had acted on behalf of members of a conspiracy who had planned the killing of President Kennedy and wanted to silence Oswald. [WCR, p. 333]

Ruby is known to have made his way, by about 11:30 p.m., to the third floor of the Dallas Police Department where reporters were congregated near the homicide bureau. [WCR, p. 340]

(A photograph of Ruby taken in Dallas Police Headquarters about midnight November 22, 1963 is Commission Exhibit 2424)

Video tapes confirm Ruby’s statement that he was present on the third floor when Chief Jesse E. Curry and District Attorney Henry M. Wade announced that Oswald would be shown to the newsmen at a press conference in the basement. [WCR, p. 342]

Sunday morning trip to police department—Leaving his apartment a few minutes before 11 a.m., Ruby went to his automobile taking with him his dachshund, Sheba, and a portable radio. He placed a revolver which he routinely carried in a bank moneybag in the trunk of his car. [WCR, p. 354]

Ruby parked his car in a lot directly across the street from the Western Union office. He apparently placed his keys and billfold in the trunk of the car, then locked the trunk, which contained approximately $1,000 in cash, and placed the trunk key in the glove compartment. He did not lock the car doors. [WCR, p. 357]

Ruby entered the police basement through the auto ramp from Main Street and stood behind the front rank of newsmen and police officers who were crowded together at the base of the ramp awaiting the transfer of Oswald to the county jail. As Oswald emerged from a basement office at approximately 11:21 a.m., Ruby moved quickly forward and, without speaking, fired one fatal shot into Oswald’s abdomen before being subdued by a rush of police officers. [WCR, p. 357]

The assembly of more than 70 police officers, some of them armed with tear gas, and the contemplated use of an armored truck, appear to have been designed primarily to repel an attempt of a mob to seize the prisoner. [WCR, p. 227]

If Oswald had been tried for his murders of November 22, the effects of the news policy pursued by the Dallas authorities would have proven harmful both to the prosecution and the defense. The misinformation reported after the shootings might have been used by the defense to cast doubt on the reliability of the State’s entire case. [WCR, p. 238]

The DIA Analysis

57. The use of Jack Ruby to kill Oswald has been explained by the official reports as an aberrant act on the part of an emotional man under the influence of drugs. The Warren Commission carefully overlooked Ruby’s well-known ties to the Chicago mob as well as his connections with mob elements in Cuba.

58. Ruby’s early Chicago connections with the mob are certainly well documented in Chicago police files. This material was not used nor referred to in the Warren Report.

59. Ruby’s close connection with many members of the Dallas police infrastructure coupled with a very strong motivation to remove Oswald prior to any appointment of an attorney to represent him or any possible revelations Oswald might make about his probably knowledge of the actual assassins made Ruby an excellent agent of choice. If Oswald had gained the relative security of the County Jail and lawyers has been appointed for him, it would have proven much more difficult to remove him.

60. The Warren Commission was most particularly alarmed by attempts on the part of New York attorney Mark Lane, to present a defense for the dead Oswald before the Commission. Lane was refused this request. A written comment by Chief Justice Earl Warren to CIA Director Allan Dulles was that “people like Lane should never be permitted to air their radical views…at least not before this Commission…”

61. Ruby had been advised by his Chicago mob connections, as well as by others involved in the assassination, that his killing of Oswald would “make him a great hero” in the eyes of the American public and that he “could never be tried or convicted” in any American court of law.

62. Ruby, who had personal identity problems, accepted and strongly embraced this concept and was shocked to find that he was to be tried on a capital charge. Never very stable, Ruby began to disintegrate while in custody and mixed fact and fiction in a way as to convince possible assassins that he was not only incompetent but would not reveal his small knowledge of the motives behind the removal of Oswald.

63. In the presence of Chief Justice Warren, Ruby strongly intimated that he had additional information to disclose and wanted to go to the safety of Washington but Warren abruptly declared that he was not interested in hearing any of it.

64. A polygraph given to Ruby concerning his denial of knowing Oswald and only attempting to kill him as a last minute impulse proved to be completely unsatisfactory and could not be used to support the Commission’s thesis.

65. During his final illness, while in Parkland Hospital, Ruby was under heavy sedation and kept well supervised to prevent any death bed confessions or inopportune chance remarks to hospital attendants. An unconfirmed report from a usually reliable source states that Ruby was given an injection of air with a syringe which produced an embolism that killed him. The official cause of Ruby’s death was a blood clot.

66. It was later alleged that Ruby had metastated cancer of the brain and lungs which somehow had escaped any detection during his incarceration in Dallas. It was further alleged that this terminal cancer situation had existed for over a year without manifesting any serious symptoms to the Dallas medical authorities. This is viewed by non-governmental oncologists as highly unbelievable and it appears that Ruby’s fatal blood clot was the result of outside assistance.

 

 

Author’s comments

Although the American public was badly shaken by the events of November 22, 1963, the killing of Oswald two days later was a matter that brought into serious question the entire developing official explanation of the assassination.

The Katzenbach letter is an excellent indication of which way the official wind was blowing. At the same time, Director Hoover wrote similar letters, one to President Johnson about cutting off debate and clearly defining Oswald as the sole assassin.[22]

Oswald was not the sole assassin. In point of fact, Lee Harvey Oswald had nothing whatsoever to do with the assassination of John Kennedy. Oswald was a very convenient scapegoat for the murder and was set up for it by the real killers.

The question has been asked that if the FBI had been entrusted with the investigation, would they not have found evidence of a conspiracy, assuming there was one?

The answer would be affirmative. If there had been a conspiracy, the FBI would certainly have discovered it. That having been said, consider several important factors.

Oswald had been employed by a number of official U.S. agencies: the ONI,[23] the CIA, and, finally, the FBI. Given the intense, and growing, public concern over the stunning act in Dallas, it would have been political suicide for Hoover to acknowledge that an FBI paid informant had killed the President of the United States.

Hoover had found his position very insecure during the Kennedy administration. The President’s brother, Robert Kennedy, had been Attorney General and detested Hoover, calling him “an old faggot” and trying to find some way to leverage him out of his office.[24] It was only the fact that Hoover had enormous files on all the important personalities in Washington, including the President and members of his family, that kept him in office. Hoover’s files on the President included information on the illegal and socially outrageous activities of John Kennedy and his father Joe.[25]

The apparent ease with which Oswald’s killer had been able to penetrate a heavy screen of Dallas police officers was addressed by Hoover in his memo of November 29:

“The President asked if we have any relationship between the two (Oswald and Rubenstein) as yet. I replied that at the present time we have not; that there was a story that the fellow had been in Rubenstein’s nightclub but it has not been confirmed. [… Ruby] knew all of the police officers in the white light district; let them come in and get food and liquor, etc.; and that is how I think he got into police headquarters. I said if they ever made any move, the pictures did not show it even when they saw his approach and he got right up to Oswald and pressed the pistol against Oswald’s stomach; that neither officer on either side made any effort to grab Rubenstein—not until after the pistol was fired. I said, secondly, the chief of police admits he moved Oswald in the morning as a convenience and at the request of the motion picture people who wanted daylight.”[26]

The truth of the Kennedy assassination is not to be found in the deliberate obfuscations, untruths, and omissions of the Warren Report but in the files of the Director of the FBI and, more especially, in the files of the CIA.

If, as postulated here, Kennedy was not killed by a lone, disgruntled societal misfit, who then did kill him and why?

The answers are to be found in both the Soviet intelligence report and the DIA commentary. Additional answers can be found in current FBI and CIA files, but as these are not available for public viewing, nor are ever likely to be, it is to these other papers that one must look.

Files aside, the most important tool that a historian can use is logic. A very complex series of theories, postulations, and presentations may simply be reduced to a very common denominator. By not multiplying entities beyond necessity, the truth quickly becomes evident to the investigator. Cutting away the concealing jungle growth brings the stalking tiger into full view.

As the Warren Commission Report obviously has nothing to say about any reasonable suspects other than the unfortunate Lee Harvey Oswald and his friends, its comments are not included in the final chapters of the drama.

Persons with an interest in going into government service are encouraged to read the Warren Commission Report to learn how to conceal their mistakes in a matrix of literary and historical nonsense. The Brothers Grimm with their classic fairy tales were doubtlessly the first governmental spin doctors, but then, no one ever was expected to take them seriously.

The Official Cover Up

Soviet Intelligence Study (translation)

62. A very large number of published books about the assassination have appeared since the year 1963. Most of these books are worthless from a historical point of view. They represent the views of obsessed people and twist information only to suit the author’s beliefs.

63. There are three main ideas written about:

a. The American gangsters killed the President because his brother, the American  Attorney General, was persecuting them;

b. Cuban refugees felt that Mr. Kennedy had deserted their cause of ousting  Cuban chief of state Castro;

c. Various American power groups such as the capitalist business owners, fascist political groups, racists, internal and external intelligence organization either  singly or in combination are identified.

64. American officials have not only made no effort to silence these writers but in many cases have encouraged them. The government feels, as numerous confidential reports indicate, that the more lunatic books appear, the better. This way, the real truth is so concealed as to be impenetrable.

65. It was initially of great concern to our government that individuals inside the American government were utilizing Oswald’s “Communist/Marxist” appearance to suggest that the assassination was of a Soviet origin.

66. In order to neutralize this very dangerous theme, immediately after the assassination, the Soviet Union fully cooperated with American investigating bodies and supplied material to them showing very clearly that Oswald was not carrying out any Soviet designs.

67. Also, false defectors were used to convince the Americans that Oswald was considered a lunatic by the Soviet Union, and had not been connected with the Soviet intelligence apparatus in any way. He was, of course, connected but it was imperative to disassociate the Soviet Union with the theory that Oswald, an American intelligence operative, had been in collusion with them concerning the assassination.

68. The false defector Nosenko, a provable member of Soviet intelligence, was given a scenario that matched so closely the personal attitudes of Mr. Hoover of the FBI that this scenario was then officially supported by Mr. Hoover and his bureau.

69. Angleton of the CIA at once suspected Nosenko’s real mission and subjected him to intense interrogation but finally, Nosenko has been accepted as a legitimate defector with valuable information on Oswald.

70. Because of this business, Angleton was forced to resign his post as chief of counter intelligence. This has been considered a most fortunate byproduct of the controversy.

71. The FBI has accepted the legitimacy of Nosenko and his material precisely because it suited them to do so. It was also later the official position of the CIA because the issue dealt specifically with the involvement, or non-involvement, between Oswald, a private party, and the organs of Soviet intelligence. Since there was no mention of Oswald’s connection with American intelligence, this was of great importance to both agencies

 

The DIA Analysis

71. The concern of Soviet intelligence and government agencies about any possible connection between defector Oswald and themselves is entirely understandable. It was never seriously believed by any competent agency in the United States that the Soviet Union had any part in the assassination of Kennedy and also known that Oswald was a government agent, working for various agencies in his lifetime.

72. Because of the emotional attitudes in official Washington and indeed, throughout the entire nation immediately following the assassination, there was created a potentially dangerous international situation for the Soviets. Oswald was an identified defector with Marxist leanings. He was also believed to be a pro-Castro activist . That both his Marxist attitudes and his sympathies and actions on behalf of the Cuban dictator were simulations was not known to the Warren Commission at the time of their activities.

73. To bolster their eager efforts to convince the American authorities that their government had nothing to do with the assassination, men like Nosenko were utilized to further support this contention. It is not known whether Nosenko was acting on orders or whether he was permitted access to created documentation and given other deliberate disinformation by the KGB and allowed to defect. A great deal of internal concern was expressed upon the Nosenko’s purported defection by Soviet officials but this is viewed at merely an attempt, and a successful one, to lend substance to his importance.

74. James Angleton’s attitude towards Nosenko is a commentary on the duality of his nature. On one hand, Angleton was performing as Chief of Counter Intelligence and openly showed his zeal in searching for infiltrators and “moles” inside his agency while on the other hand, Angleton had very specific personal knowledge that the Soviet Union had nothing to do with the Kennedy assassination

Author’s Comments

The death of President Kennedy was, on the surface at least, a straightforward act. He was shot to death while riding in a motorcade. The shooting itself was photographed (and subsequently, the FBI seized a number of these pictures and none of them have ever been seen again) by a number of bystanders in Dealy Plaza and the famous Zapruder motion picture has been viewed by a large number of people.

The murder of Oswald two days later by a petty criminal in a heavily guarded police facility clearly sowed the seeds of the following cloud of controversy and doubt that has surrounded this act.

The hastily cobbled together Warren Report was of such a nature as to raise far more questions than it answered and the attempts on the part of establishment supporters to validate it merely lend credence to the suspicions of growing legions of doubters.

When the establishment formulates an official version of an important incident, this version is strongly supported by not only the establishment itself, but by the sections of the media and academia that are beholden to them.

Anyone who entertains, or even more important, presents for public consumption, views that are in opposition to the establishment are either ignored or trivialized. In the case of the growing number of those who have brought the Warren Commission Report into question, the usual dismissive phrase is “conspiracy buff.” The implication is that anyone who questions the Warren Report is merely a gadfly amateur, protected under the First Amendment, but, of course, just another eccentric. And, as such, to be ignored.

On the other hand, authors like Gerald Posner who support the Warren Report are given prominent coverage in the establishment papers, and one sees such comments as “Persuasive…brilliantly illuminating…more satisfying than any conspiracy theory.” This is credited to a reviewer for the New York Times,[27] a newspaper that has always been a powerful supporter of the establishment point of view of the Kennedy assassination.

The official version of this event is always given the most positive adjectives in media comment while anything that would negate the official version is always termed “conspiracy theory” and generally dismissed as being the product of a disordered mind and, certainly, not having been proven.

There have been, of course, no other documents available to the public other than the ones under governmental control, and this absence has powerfully strengthened the establishment position.

Should any documents appear that would seriously question that position, the formula for negation is already well in place. Proof would be demanded, and if it were forthcoming, it would be rejected.

The motives of the supporters of the government’s thesis and their methods will be discussed in a separate chapter.

The Alternative Theory

There is no question that President John F. Kennedy was murdered in Dallas, Texas on Friday, November 22, 1963.

There is a question of whether the official government report is accurate. There is a further question as to whether this report is a deliberate attempt to confuse and hide what might actually have happened.

The key issue is whether Lee Harvey Oswald, acting entirely alone, shot and killed President Kennedy and shot and wounded Texas Governor John Connally from a so-called sniper’s nest on the sixth floor of the Texas Book Depository where he was employed.

There is a question of the weapon used. Did Oswald use a surplus Italian army rifle, a 6.5-mm Mannlicher-Carcano, equipped with an American telescopic sight?

If Oswald did not act alone, who may have acted with him?

If Oswald did not act at all, who then shot the President to death and wounded the Governor?

If persons other than Oswald assassinated the President, who were they and, more important, why did they act?

If there were other assassins, were they politically motivated?

Were they professionals, merely performing their work for money?

If professionals were hired to kill the President, who hired them and why?

These are all questions that will hopefully be fully addressed in the following pages, but certainty is always illusion, and, contrary to the title of Posner’s book, cases of such complexity are never closed. And wishing does not make it so, ever.

While there were a significant number of groups and individuals who disliked and even hated John Kennedy, most of them possessed neither the means nor the ability to terminate his presidency.

However, there were a very few who did. Leaving out the chronically displeased and the lunatic fringe and concentrating on those who might have had not only the means but also the ability to assassinate a heavily guarded President, here is the primary question:

Who were these groups? There was, first and foremost, organized American crime.

At the time of the assassination, Robert Kennedy, the President’s brother, was conducting a serious campaign against organized crime. He was doing so at the request of his father, multimillionaire and former Ambassador to Great Britain, Joseph P. Kennedy.[28]

The Mafia, most especially the Chicago branch of that confederation, was enraged at these attacks on them. They felt that because the “Ambassador” (as he liked to be called) had openly solicited their active assistance for the candidacy of his son, John, during the presidential campaign of 1960, attacks by the Kennedy administration on them were not in order.

They had agreed with Joseph Kennedy to work in conjunction with the Chicago political machine, under the capable hands of Mayor Richard Daley, to secure blocks of vital votes for John F. Kennedy. In this, they were very successful. In Chicago it is still said that in 1960, people voted early and often. So great was the enthusiasm for a Kennedy victory that even the dead were said to have voted, again, early and often.

The presence of Texas Senator Lyndon Johnson on the ticket as Vice President somehow secured the negation of over 100,000 votes in Texas and this dubious act, coupled with the successes in Chicago, secured Kennedy’s election but by the slimmest of margins.

The quid pro quo stated in the beginning, and fully expected to be operable by the Chicago group, was that the ongoing prosecution, and, as they saw it, persecution of Teamsters’ Union President James R. Hoffa by the government be halted. Organized crime had been making effective use of the Teamsters’ Union’s enormous pension fund to build casinos in Las Vegas, and Hoffa was considered to be more than friendly, and very useful, to their business projects.

By accepting the aid of Chicago mob boss Sam Giancana in the election, it was generally, and not unreasonably, felt by this individual that his terms had been accepted. John Kennedy had been elected with the Chicago mob’s vital support, and the actions against Hoffa therefore would cease.[29]

They reckoned, however, without the personality of Joseph Kennedy.

During Prohibition, the elder Kennedy had been deeply involved in the importation and sale of liquor that had been officially banned in the United States. This activity was the real basis for the large Kennedy fortune, and Joe Kennedy had formed a partnership in the Chicago area with gang leader Al Capone during this period.

There was an incident in which Kennedy attempted to cheat Capone over a large shipment of illegally imported liquor and the enraged Capone threatened to kill the future ambassador. In order to prevent this, Kennedy was forced to bring two suitcases filled with money to Chicago to seek to repair the dangerous breach between himself and the brutally effective Capone:

 

75.The senior Kennedy, it is known, was heavily involved with rumrunning during the Prohibition era and had extensive mob connections. He had been closely associated with Al Capone, mob boss in Chicago and had a falling out with him over an allegedly hijacked liquor shipment. Capone, Chicago police records indicate, had threatened Kennedy’s life over this and Kennedy had to pay off the mob to nullify a murder contract.” DIA analysis

 

Kennedy had never forgiven Capone for his threats, for the loss of money, and most especially for the humiliations he had suffered by his mea culpa.[30]

The “Ambassador” was a man who never forgot and never forgave, and when his son was safely in the White House, he demanded that the new President appoint his younger brother as the Attorney General of the United States. Robert Kennedy had been slated for a less important post in the new administration, but Joe Kennedy demanded it, and when he demanded, he was obeyed.

The children of Joseph Kennedy were completely under the influence and certainly the domination of their ferocious father, and they did as they were told, even if they occupied the Oval Office.[31]

When Bobby Kennedy became Attorney General, he immediately, on his father’s instructions, instituted a reign of terror against organized crime in general and specifically the Chicago branch. The targets of this vengeance must have viewed these renewed and greatly intensified attacks on themselves as a gross breach of faith and a betrayal by a long-time business associate.

The Mafia certainly had the means of assassinating someone, although perhaps not the President of the United States, and they certainly had the motivation.

In fact, they did play a significant part in the plot but not as a prime mover, only as a very willing and able subcontractor.

Professional crime, then, is one significant player on the board.

Well organized, intelligent, and completely ruthless as they may be, this segment of the American business community did not achieve its position in American society because they were stupid. Had they personally attempted to assassinate a sitting President, if caught before or after the act, the reprisals would have been swift and deadly.

However, the mob’s connections reached well up into various governmental structures, and if they had an even more powerful patron guiding and ultimately protecting them, the chances of detection and subsequent retribution would be greatly lessened:

 

72. It is known now that the American gangsters had very close relations with the Central Intelligence Agency. This relationship began during the war when the American OSS made connections with the Sicilian members of the American gangs in order to assist them against the fascists. The man who performed this liaison was Angleton, later head of counter intelligence for the CIA. These gangster contacts were later utilized by the CIA for its own ends.Russian Intelligence Study

 

45. The connections of Angleton, Chief of Counter Intelligence for the CIA with elements of the mob are well known in intelligence circles. Angleton worked closely with the Sicilian and Naples mobs in 1944 onwards as part of his duties for the OSS

46. The connections of Robert Crowley, another senior CIA official, with elements of the Chicago mob are also well known in intelligence circles. . DIA analysis

 

The American mob is one of the major pieces on the chessboard but there are others to consider.

The next significant group to consider is the Cuban exiles. In 1959, when Fidel Castro and his revolutionary movement overthrew Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista, the U.S. backed and thoroughly corrupt Cuban head of state, a massive influx of upper and professional class Cubans fled to the protection of the United States.

Castro soon made his Marxist leanings very clear and by doing this, became an immediate player in the ongoing Cold War. While elements of the CIA had actively assisted him in achieving power, others began a campaign against him, using every means to remove him, including plotting his assassination.

Not only did Castro nationalize American business holdings, he also forced out the Mafia owners of Cuba’s very lucrative casino industry. Since the CIA had strong and often useful contacts with the Mafia, the anger of the mob because of the dispossession of its assets matched or surpassed that of American business interests and strongly motivated the powerful anti-Castro movement, which was sponsored and maintained by the CIA.[32]

Paramilitary cadres of Cuban anti-Castro activists were organized, armed, and funded by the CIA and, in April of 1962, these units attacked the island with the intention of initiating a revolt against Castro. The landing was met by Cuban regular military units under Castro’s command and was decisively crushed.

Kennedy did not back up the commando units with armed support by U.S. military units, and the fury of the rebel Cubans was intense.

More promises to liberate their country were made by the CIA, and the units were increased in size and armament. It was their continuing commando raids against Cuba that eventually led directly to the Cuban missile crisis of October 1962.[33]

A combination of Kennedy’s perceived weakness coupled with the CIA’s commando raids convinced Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev that he could threaten the United States with possible military reprisals while shoring up the Soviet Union’s relations with its Western Hemisphere ally.

Kennedy proved to be far stronger than the Soviet leader had bargained for, and the risk of war, which was great, diminished quickly as the result of a significant rapprochement between the two leaders.

As a result of this rapprochement, Kennedy agreed to halt the incursions and Khrushchev agreed to withdraw Soviet missiles from Cuba.

This demarche infuriated the volatile Cubans who felt they had been betrayed twice by the Kennedy administration in general and specifically by the President himself.[34]

The CIA condoled with the Cuban rebels and, in spite of presidential orders to cease and desist the raids, continued to encourage and support them with unabated zeal.[35]

Finally, Kennedy ordered the FBI to break up the commando training camps in Florida and Louisiana and seize all their weapons and arrest as many militants as could be found:[36]

 

76.Anti-Castro Cuban militants viewed Kennedy’s abandonment of their cause with great anger and many members of these CIA-trained and led groups made calls for revenge on the President for his abandonment of their cause. DIA analysis

 

These FBI raids occurred shortly before the November Dallas visit, and certainly volatile Cuban rage provided another entity that was added to the list of those who not only wanted revenge on Kennedy but also possessed the temperament, the experience, and the motivation to accomplish it.

The third group is one that is only mentioned by most revisionist writers almost in passing, and yet of all of the possible suspects brought before the bar of public and historical inquiry, it had the strongest motive to remove John F. Kennedy as President of the United States.

This group is the Central Intelligence Agency, an entity that had close connections to both organized crime and the militant Cubans. In retrospect, the CIA had the clearest, most logical, and immediate reason for removing John F. Kennedy from the Presidency and the further removal of anyone privy to their instigation and implementation of such an act.

The CIA has, since its inception in 1947, been accused of an unending catalog of instigating rebellions, civil wars, religious upheavals, the planning and execution of assassinations, and numerous other acts of terrorism throughout the world.[37]

It was, after all, the CIA who recruited, trained, and armed Osama bin Laden and his terrorists, a group that then turned on its creator with terrible results.[38]

By these actions, which are certainly known to its victims, the CIA has built up a reservoir of suspicion, general animosity, and specific hatred throughout the world, and these perceptions have had serious consequences for the American people. In many of these cases, the sins of the fathers have indeed been visited upon their children.

In order to discomfit and disrupt the Soviet Union when that country occupied Afghanistan, the CIA organized, funded and armed groups of young Muslims to conduct guerrilla warfare in that bleak mountain country.

Russian military units were so badly mauled by the rebels that they eventually withdrew from Afghanistan, leaving the rebels in command of the country. When the Soviets left, so did the CIA. The rebels were left in control of an impoverished country with an obliterated infrastructure and with no support from their erstwhile friends.

A strong sense of betrayal turned into animosity, and then into hatred and ready acceptance of the belief that the United States was an evil entity. From this hardening attitude, it was only a short step to attacking their former allies with the same ruthless zeal they had so effectively practiced against America’s previous enemy.

And what are the origins of this official arm of the American people? The Central Intelligence Agency was instituted by the National Security Act in 1947. President Harry S. Truman used the CIA to keep the White House informed of foreign activities that could have an impact on the United States. They were, in fact, a presidential intelligence and information agency and nothing more.[39]

With the expansion of the Cold War, which they helped formulate and encourage, the CIA started on a campaign of empire building that grew to enormous proportions. They convinced the President and key members of his administration as well as the American Congress that the Central Intelligence Agency alone was able to combat the machinations of the evil Soviet Union, to preserve democracy, and to maintain American economic superiority throughout the world.

Their annual budget grew to astronomical proportions, and none of it was accounted for. Anyone who questioned the actions of the CIA was immediately singled out for attack in the American media as a suspect and unreliable person. Questions by legislators about CIA operations, even very benign operations, were met with a stony refusal of cooperation. The favorite CIA defense was to cite the concept of what they loved to call “National Security” to silence their critics.[40] They were trusted by the White House and, in the minds of many in Washington, became the vital and trusted shield of the United States.

The CIA set American foreign policy to a remarkable degree. They subjected foreign governments and leaders to their brilliant scrutiny, made determinations based on their brilliant scrutiny, and then wrote secret reports concerning these determinations—which then became state policy:

 

73. American foreign policy was, and still is, firmly in the hands of the CIA. It alone makes determinations as to which nation is to be favored and which is to be punished. No nation is permitted to be a neutral; all have to be either in the US camp or are its enemies. Most often, the wishes of American business are paramount in the determination as to which nation will receive US support and which will not only be denied this support but attacked. It is the American CIA and not the Soviet Union, that had divided the world into two warring camps.

Russian Intelligence study

 

Like historical events, government bureaucracies are complex, diverse, and beyond simple understanding.

The entity that had the greatest reason to remove John Kennedy from his office was divided and subdivided into many sections and branches, many of which operated as semi-independent entities, answerable in theory to their superiors but in fact to no one.

In the compartmentalization of an agency with a fanatic fascination with secrecy, the opportunities for indulgence in private actions were immense and, in almost every instance, entirely secure.

The CIA was headed by a Director and beneath him, during the period in question, was the Deputy Director, the Deputy Director for Community Relations and beneath them were: the Directorate of Intelligence, the Directorate of Science and Technology, the Directorate of Management and Services, and, finally, the Directorate of Operations, also known as Clandestine Services.[41]

It was in the Directorate of Operations that the initial disaffection with the actions of President Kennedy first surfaced. In light of their wider discoveries of certain of Kennedy’s activities, the dissatisfaction had hardened into a resolve to remove him, or, as was said at the time, to “neutralize” him.

The CIA has always found euphemisms for its murderous activities. “Neutralize” is one word and another euphemism is to “terminate with extreme prejudice” as well as to “close the files” on a successfully terminated “resource” or perhaps what was coming to be viewed as a “rogue” President.[42]

To fully understand the dynamics of the Kennedy assassination, it is necessary to study both the President’s actions and the CIA’s reactions to them.

A historical incident, for example the sinking of the RMS Titanic in 1912, is an excellent example of changing perspectives. There was the immediacy, and inaccuracy, of the initial newspaper reports. The liner was safe and on its way to Halifax with all saved, the world press reported, when, in reality, the shattered remains of the White Star’s luxury liner were actually at the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean.[43]

Initial reports and observations have historical importance by showing often-erroneous primary impressions but it takes the passage of time, shifting policies, and extensive and objective investigation to show a matter in the round and with far greater accuracy.

As in so many other cases, it was the personality, actions, and family background of John Kennedy that led to his death.

It has emerged in the decades since his death that Kennedy was a man who enjoyed living on the edge. He acquired his serious flirtations with disaster from his father. The senior Kennedy was a thoroughly ruthless controlling man who let nothing and no one stand in his way. Pathologically ambitious, Joe Kennedy believed that he should have been destined for political and social greatness, but his treacherous and savage lifestyle effectively blocked his advance in the public arena.[44]

Kennedy thought he could manipulate Franklin Roosevelt, but he was, in turn, used by the President who was far more skilled in Byzantine plottings than the bootlegger and stock market manipulator. Kennedy had been head of the Securities and Exchange Commission and performed outstandingly, but his completely predatory approach to all things he desired was such as to keep Roosevelt from using his genuine talents.[45]

Kennedy essentially purchased the ambassadorship to the Court of St. James in London but, when there, proceeded to perform in a manner that infuriated Roosevelt. He immediately became involved in stock market manipulations, dealing in foreign holdings, and using his inside connections to add to his already impressive holdings.

Worse, from Roosevelt’s point of view, he did everything possible to sabotage the joint program Roosevelt and Churchill were putting forward to involve the United States in Britain’s war with Germany.

British intelligence, with a mandate from Prime Minister Winston Churchill, spied on Kennedy, bugging his telephone and intercepting his correspondence, and passed on their findings both to Churchill and Roosevelt. Without realizing it, Kennedy had effectively destroyed any hope he might have entertained that Roosevelt would support any Kennedy for high political office.[46]

His eldest son, Joe Jr., was killed in the war under circumstances that are still unknown and highly suspect.[47] As Kennedy was planning to put this son forward for the high political offices he himself could never achieve, he then turned his attentions to the next eldest son Jack.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy was not a likely candidate for high political office. He was plagued with ill health, had aspirations to become a professional athlete, and was thoroughly under his father’s thumb. He also possessed a good sense of humor, considerable intelligence, youthful good looks, and the ability to make people like him.[48]

Unfortunately for his image, many of the people who liked him were women, and for them, Kennedy had an insatiable appetite. His sexual appetites were of such a voracious nature as to verge on the pathological and posed a terrible public relations threat to the occupant of the White House.[49]

As well as having the potential to destroy his public reputation, his frenzied pursuit of sexual gratification left him and, to a lesser degree, his younger brother Robert in a position to be blackmailed.

If it had not been for the vaulting ambition of his father, it is doubtful if John F. Kennedy would have achieved much more than an elevated position in the business world. Once he became Senator, and then President, his father oversaw his actions to a remarkable degree, and only when the senior Kennedy had a crippling stroke did his son begin to show signs of being his own man.[50]

Beneath his considerable charm, John F. Kennedy was a very ruthless individual who could move with great effect against his enemies when it proved necessary to do so. It was the ruthless pragmatism learned from his father that eventually set in motion the forces that led directly to his assassination. From his early experiences with American politics through his tutoring by an aggressive and manipulative father, Kennedy was a totally pragmatic politician, and this pragmatism made him far more dangerous enemies than American organized crime or furious Cuban activists.

He crossed swords with, and greatly antagonized, the most powerful secret society in American history: the Central Intelligence Agency.

The CIA

The Central Intelligence Agency grew out of the wartime Office of Special Services (OSS) which was set up by William Donovan, a New York attorney, at the request of his friend, President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

The President, a firm supporter of Josef Stalin and a man of strong left wing politics, mandated the OSS to render as much logistical support to the Soviet Union as possible. The Roosevelt administration was packed with Soviet agents who dedicated their existence to the unqualified support of the Communist State.

Top presidential aide Harry Hopkins has been identified as a paid Soviet agent as were Harry Dexter White, top advisor to Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau, Jr., Alger Hiss, senior official of the Department of State, David K. Niles, senior presidential advisor, and many others.

The Vice President, Henry Wallace, was in complete sympathy with the aims of Stalin, and while he was not a paid agent, he was an agent of influence and worked closely with the head of Soviet intelligence in Washington throughout and after the war.

The OSS was filled with pro-Soviet agents who had been instructed by OSS chief William Donovan to cooperate fully with their counterparts in the NKVD.[51]

With the death of Roosevelt in April of 1945 and the elevation of Vice President Harry Truman to the presidency, the eager, unstinting and certainly unquestioned cooperation between Stalin’s agents and the United States came to an end. Unlike his predecessor, Truman was not enraptured with fuzzy dreams of a People’s Republic on the Potomac and almost immediately ordered the disbanding of the OSS.[52]

A number of its ultra-left wing former agents were posted to the U.S. Department of State to await a dignified separation from government service, untainted by accusations of being active Communists. There the matter stood until 1947 when Truman mandated the formation of a new intelligence-gathering agency.

This was to be called the Central Intelligence Agency and its sole purpose was to keep the President and his top officials current with global political intelligence.[53]

Military intelligence was in the hands of the respective services, but Truman wished to prevent another Pearl Harbor from being launched on the United States. One of the training films shown to CIA recruits has this anti-Pearl Harbor message as its main theme.[54]

If the purpose of the CIA was to prevent future surprise attacks on the United States, the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001, are overwhelming evidence that an astronomical amount of taxpayer’s money was completely wasted.

The vast sums voted by Congress and not subject to accounting under any circumstances might have been far better spent on constructive national programs that would have been subject to strict accountability.[55]

Starting out as a small agency under the direction of Rear Admiral Roscoe Hillenkoetter, the CIA was filled with former OSS personnel who certainly found their new role confusing. Instead of giving powerful assistance to the Soviet Union, their new agency rapidly grew into an anti-Soviet entity.

When Allen Welch Dulles joined the CIA in 1950, the agency was under the control of General Walter Bedell Smith, once Eisenhower’s Chief of Staff and later U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union. Dulles had been the OSS Chief of Station in neutral Switzerland and his officially praised activities there were nothing more than an intelligence disaster of the highest magnitude.

Dulles, who always entertained a very high opinion of himself, attempted to penetrate the defenses of the German Reich and actually believed that he had done so with brilliant success. In truth, German counterintelligence had easily penetrated his organization and filled the complaisant Dulles with an incredible amount of highly destructive disinformation.

The Dulles analysis of conditions inside the Greater German Reich, when read with hindsight, would be amusing in the extreme had not so many OSS agents been caught and executed because of the incompetence of the OSS chief of station, in many cases by the same man who later occupied a prominent position in the CIA.[56]

The Cold War was an engineered affair and its chief architect was former German Army General Reinhard Gehlen, a former head of the Soviet military intelligence section of the Wehrmacht. In 1948, at the request of his superiors, Gehlen concocted a lengthy pseudo-informational report stating that 135 Soviet armored divisions were poised to strike into Central Europe.

This report was a complete fiction and was prepared solely to create a situation wherein the American military could legitimately increase its size, and American business, in a slump after the end of the boom years of World War II, would once again gear up for a highly profitable wartime economy.

The so-called Gehlen Report was brilliantly successful once it had been leaked to key members of Congress and the President. This was the starting gun of a Cold War that ran on for over forty years and lofted the CIA into a position of supreme power in the ruling circles of the American government.[57]

Because of what they convinced the American leadership was a mortal danger to the security of the United States, the CIA grew from an informational service to an enormous, bloated agency with tens of thousands of employees and an annual budget running into the billions.

They were, as they often pointed out to various occupants of the Oval Office and Congress, the shield and buckler of American freedom and, by extension, the freedom of the rest of the world.[58] Or at least that part of the world that had the approval of the CIA and, by inference, the American government.

At the time of his devastating essay into creative writing, former General Gehlen was a paid employee of the CIA.[59]

After Truman came Eisenhower, a man who strongly supported the CIA and cooperated in its empire building. From modest quarters in a disused Washington hospital, the CIA later expanded into an enormous office complex in Langley, Virginia. It now owns hundreds of “proprietary” businesses, including air and shipping lines, publishing and weapons companies, think tanks, import and export companies, and telecommunication networks. It also controls hundreds, if not thousands, of voluntary sources scattered throughout key elements of both the American and European private sectors.[60]

It was under Eisenhower that the CIA launched its clandestine warfare against the Marxist Cuban regime of Fidel Castro, warfare that the Agency warmly believed would terminate in a successful invasion of the Caribbean bastion of the world Communist movement.

If history can be said to be instructive, the CIA, like the Bourbons, obviously forgot nothing and learned nothing from their past errors.

In 1956, a CIA-instigated revolt broke out in Hungary, fueled by repeated CIA promises of immediate U.S. military assistance if the occupants of that nation rose up against their Soviet occupiers.[61]

The revolt was an initial success, but President Eisenhower quite sensibly refused to support it with American military aid and it died in a bloodbath of Soviet military repression. Better, Eisenhower reasoned, a few thousand dead Hungarians than hundreds of thousands of dead Americans.

The identical scenario was to be repeated in the so-called Bay of Pigs invasion in April of 1961. Kennedy, Eisenhower’s successor, had only been partially briefed by the CIA and had given his conditional approval to the projected invasion by Cuban nationals of Castro’s fortress.[62]

In order to prevent another Hungarian fiasco, the CIA had thoughtfully dispatched a boatload of Cuban rebels disguised as members of the regular Cuban armed forces to launch an attack on the U.S. naval base at Guantánamo Bay in Cuba.

In furtherance of strongly desired military attacks on Cuba, the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) prepared Operation NORTHWOODS. This plan was to deliberately provoke a war with Cuba by executing a series of assaults on the United States by American special forces! Boats full of Cuban refugees were to be sunk on the high seas, aircraft were to be hijacked, bombs detonated in American cities, an American military ship was to be blown up, and passenger aircraft destroyed in the air. All of these terrorist acts against American cities and its citizens, shockingly redolent of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on New York and Washington, were to be planned and executed by the American military, under orders of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and conducted by American military and civilian personnel.

The attacks on shipping in Guantánamo Bay were part and parcel of Operation NORTHWOODS:[63]

 

37. At that time, the FBI was involved, at the request of the Attorney General, Robert Kennedy, in watching the clandestine activities of the CIA and its Alpha and Omega special commando groups, some of whom were in training in the New Orleans area.

38. The American President was greatly concerned that continued and fully unauthorized para-military action against Cuba might upset the balance he had achieved in seeking peace with the Soviet Union.

39. It is knows from informants inside the CIA and also from Cuban double agents that the CIA was, in conjunction with the highest American military leadership, to force an American invasion of Cuba.

40. These joint plans, which consisted of acts of extreme provocation by American units against American property and citizens,  were unknown to Kennedy.

41. When the American President discovered that Cuban insurgents, under the control of the CIA and with the support of the highest military leadership, were embarked on a course of launching military action against American naval bases under the cover of being Cuban regular troops, he at once ordered a halt.

Russian Intelligence study

 

The JCS anticipated that the U.S. forces at the base would naturally return fire and call for military assistance. This assistance, they reasoned, would guarantee full, and official, American military support of their venture.

They did not anticipate that some unhelpful individual in their ranks would have informed Kennedy of their scheme to involve the United States in a massive invasion of Cuba, nor that the new President’s immediate response to the Guantánamo diversion was to not only recall the projected attackers but also refuse to support the CIA-organized landings at the Bay of Pigs.[64]

Instead of the Cuban people rising in joyous revolt against Castro, as the CIA pundits fondly believed, the evil Marxist dictator easily crushed the invasion and captured or killed all of the CIA’s troops.

There was great and understandable unhappiness in the camps of Cuban rebels, and the CIA, with commendable forthrightness, shifted the blame for the disaster onto the new President.

This was one of the major building blocks of the conspiracy to remove John Kennedy from office.

When the President learned the full scope of the CIA’s duplicity, he fired the beloved head of the CIA, Allen Welch Dulles, as well as General Charles P. Cabell and Richard E. Bissell, Jr., the CIA’s Director of Clandestine Services. He also told Senator Mike Mansfield that he planned to “break up the CIA and scatter it to the winds.”[65]

The leadership of the CIA, especially James Jesus Angleton, felt that Kennedy had sufficient knowledge of the Cuban putsch and that his sacking of their top officials and threats to disband them were merely designed to distance him from the debacle.[66]

This was another of the building blocks in the CIA’s growing fear of the Kennedy presidency.

After the Bay of Pigs fiasco, the CIA continued their commando raids against Cuba and its ruler. It was during this time that Angleton approached the Chicago Mafia with an eye to assassinating Fidel Castro:[67]

 

47. The attempts of the CIA and the JCS to remove Castro by assassination are also part of the official record. These assassination plots, called RIFLE show the connections between the CIA and the Chicago branch of the Mafia. DIA analysis

 

 

The mob was certainly eager to regain control of its lucrative Cuban casinos, and various conversations took place concerning the physical removal of the Cuban leader.

As has always been the case, the CIA demands plausible deniability on its part should one of their often-bizarre plots suddenly come to the public attention. In the case of Castro, the plans discussed bordered on the lunatic: he would be blown up by a booby trap cunningly disguised as a rare sea shell; his wet suit would be poisoned; and even more ludicrous, a drug would be put into his shoes to cause his trademark beard to fall out![68]

As the usual method of Mafia removal was to shoot their target and be done with it, one wonders if Sam Giancana was entertaining himself with the slapstick efforts of the shield of democracy.

The Soviet KGB learned of these plots and Nikita Khrushchev became convinced that the United States planned to kill off one of his more prominent satellite leaders and invade his bastion of Western Hemisphere Marxism. In order to frustrate the United States in its ambitions and to protect his client, Khrushchev began to clandestinely move Soviet troops and missiles into the tropical paradise with an eye to balancing the scales.

The United States, after all, had placed its Jupiter missiles in Turkey, right on the Soviet border, and a quid pro quo appeared to be entirely in order:

 

74. American, and most especially the CIA, attempts to destabilize a Communist state i.e., Cuba, could not be permitted by the Soviet leadership. Castro was a most valuable client in that he provided an excellent base of intelligence and political operations in the American hemisphere. As the CIA had been setting up its own ring of hostile states surrounding the Soviet Union, Cuba was viewed officially as a completely legitimate area of political expansion. Threats of invasion and physical actions against Cuba were viewed by the Chairman as threats against the Soviet Union itself.”

Russian Intelligence Study,

 

77.Soviet attempts to gain a strategic foothold in close proximity to the United States and certainly well within missile range, was intolerable and had to be countered with equal force. At that time, the threat of major war was not only imminent but anticipated. In retrospect, all out nuclear warfare between the United States and the Soviet Union was only barely averted and only at the last minute. DIA analysis

 

The U.S. discovered the Soviet actions and the Cuban Missile Crisis erupted in October of 1962. Kennedy ordered overflights of Cuba to verify Soviet missile positions, then blockaded the country and threatened to prevent further Soviet shipments of weaponry by force if necessary.

In the end, common sense on both sides prevailed and the crisis ended peacefully. The Soviets agreed to withdraw their weapons and the United States agreed to withdraw its Jupiter missiles from Turkey. Kennedy also agreed to halt armed commando raids against Cuba and abandon any attempt to physically invade Khrushchev’s ally.

As this meant the cessation of the CIA attacks, the Agency was infuriated. The training and supply of these militant units was an excellent source of money that, again, did not need to be accounted for. The termination of funding for the Cuban adventurers meant a serious diminution of the flow of money that the CIA found so comforting and useful.[69]

As a result of his rapprochement with his opposite number in the Kremlin, Kennedy ordered all CIA incursions and commando activities against Cuba to cease.

The CIA paid no attention to the President’s orders and Kennedy then ordered the FBI to raid the CIA camps, seize weapons and paperwork and arrest anyone found:[70]

 

43. The American President, unsure of the depth of his influence with the leadership of the American military and the CIA, ordered the FBI to investigate these matters and ordered the Director, Hoover, to report directly to him on his findingsRussian Intelligence study

 

These actions merely confirmed to certain high elements in the CIA that Kennedy had to be silenced. He had, in fact, become a stone in their shoe.

What really convinced the CIA to remove their President had its roots in the Bay of Pigs episode and was viewed by Angleton, Crowley, and others as an imperative that both Kennedy and his brother Robert be removed from the levers of power as expeditiously as possible. Injured feelings and lost revenue aside, the leadership of the CIA did indeed have what could well be considered as a thoroughly legitimate reason for their actions.

One of the top Soviet intelligence agents in Washington at the time of the Bay of Pigs was Georgi N. Bolshakov. Ostensibly a reporter for the Soviet TASS news agency, Bolshakov was approached by Robert Kennedy’s press secretary, Edwin Guthman, shortly after the disastrous Bay of Pigs. The President and his brother were, above all, political pragmatists. They had learned this from their practical and ruthless father. From April of 1961 onward, the President of the United States, through his brother, the Attorney General, was in direct contact with Soviet Premier Khruschev, effectively bypassing not only his Department of State but the CIA as well.[71]

The Soviets bypassed their own ambassador in this, and the two leaders kept in constant contact. The purpose of this unofficial contact was to insure that neither party suffered from the actions of the other and that both men could be of mutual assistance to each other’s political careers without the danger of serious confrontations and possible conflict.

In August of 1961, in order to prevent the flight of valuable East German professionals to the West, the German capital was bisected by the Berlin wall. In the West, this act was viewed as a terrible provocation, but serious confrontation between the two powers was quickly averted when Kennedy granted, through the offices of Bolshakov, that he would not make any serious move to contest the Soviet actions.

The Kennedy-Khruschev contacts continued on a regular basis at the very least until January of 1963.[72]

In August of 1962, James Jesus Angleton, Chief of Counterintelligence for the CIA, was informed from a very reliable Soviet source that highly secret top-level American intelligence information was coming into the hands of the Soviet leadership on a regular basis. Angleton was given several specific items of an extraordinarily sensitive, and accurate, nature then circulating in Moscow.

A second report from the same source, via Sweden, in early September of 1962 thoroughly frightened Angleton and convinced him that there was a very high level mole somewhere in the upper levels of his own CIA.

Always inclined to a paranoid view of his profession,[73] the frantic Angleton started an intense search for the disastrous leak. The CIA was so large and those possessing knowledge of the secret material so diverse in number that he found himself frustrated in his efforts to pinpoint the mole in his agency.

Finally, Robert Crowley suggested a possible means by which the leak could be identified. He knew that the leaked information was all contained in the regular CIA reports that were circulated in official Washington. These reports were highly classified and only a handful of top-level personnel were privy to their contents.

Crowley suggested that each report be prepared with a different additive. The basic reports, he said, should all be the same but each one should contain an entirely different subject. This inclusion should be of such a nature as to draw strong attention to itself but not detract from the thrust of the intelligence evaluations.

Desperate and frantic at his lack of success in tracking the leak and the leakers, Angleton followed Crowley’s shrewd and very practical advice.

Subsequent top-level CIA briefing reports did indeed have the telltale additives included in them.

In December of 1962, a report from the Soviet source contained an almost verbatim copy of a CIA report with an identifying marker included.

Angleton and his inner circle of counter intelligence staff were horrified to discover that the leak was coming from the CIA reports given to the President himself!

It was a well-known Washington secret that the President entertained a steady stream of Washington prostitutes, party girls, and other women of easy virtue in the White House whenever his wife was absent. There were nude swimming parties in the White House pool with Kennedy and some of his aides cavorting with his female visitors. Drugs were used, including marijuana, cocaine, and, finally, LSD.[74]

Kennedy, who liked three-way sex, had professional pictures taken of himself and his ladies. A number of these photographs, developed and printed (and often framed as presidential gifts) by a well-known Washington photography gallery, came into the hands of Robert Crowley at one point and ended up in his papers:[75]

 

74….It is an absolute fact that both the American President, Kennedy, and his brother, the American Attorney General, were especially active in a sexual sense. A number of sexually explicit pictures of the President engaging in sexual acts are in the official files as are several pictures of the Attorney General, taken while on a visit to Moscow in 1961.

75. The President was aware that a number of these pictures were in Soviet hands and acted accordingly. In addition to a regular parade of whores into the White House, it was also reliably reported from several sources that the President was a heavy user of various kinds of illegal narcotics. It is also known from medical reports that the President suffered from a chronic venereal disease for which he was receiving medical treatment. Russian Intelligence study

 

Angleton found it an extremely difficult prospect to investigate the White House personnel to determine the source of the serious leaks of the CIA’s top briefing papers.

Kennedy’s personal staff was noted for its loyalty to the President and Angleton said repeatedly that any hint of his very active suspicions of peculation in the White House might well backfire in a fatal way if they became known.

Finally, in late December of 1962, a personal friend commented in passing that Bobby Kennedy had developed a very close relationship with a top Soviet agent in Washington, and at this point the entire secret backstairs diplomacy became a matter of growing knowledge in the CIA.

Angleton had the technical section of the CIA tap the telephones of the Attorney General, both those in his private office and the ones in his home in Virginia. It was only a matter of time before the CIA technicians successfully intercepted a call between Bobby Kennedy and Bolshakov in February of 1963.[76]

During the course of this taped conversation, it became very clear that the American President and the Soviet Premier had been in direct contact for some time through the medium of Bobby Kennedy and a senior KGB agent. A comment from the Russian about material that could only have come from the President’s CIA briefing papers convinced Angleton that the Kennedys were engaging in treasonable activities and had severely compromised a number of important CIA agents and operations throughout the world:

 

76. In order to better cooperate with the Soviet Union, President Kennedy used to regularly keep in close, private communication with the Chairman. These contacts were kept private to prevent negative influences from the State Department and most certainly from the Central Intelligence Agency. The President said several times that he did not trust this agency who was bent on stirring up a war between the two nations. Through this personal contact, many matters that might have escalated due to the interference of others were peacefully settled.Russian Intelligence study

 

78.The President’s highly unorthodox form of personal diplomacy vis a vis the Soviets created far more problems that it ever solved. When it came to light, both the DOS and the CIA were extremely concerned that sensitive intelligence matters might have been inadvertently passed to the Soviets. DIA analysis

 

 

The fact that the President’s brother, with his permission, was passing what the CIA considered highly secret material to their chief enemy had a terrible effect. Angleton, who knew the President and his family socially, was devastated. In a series of private meetings held between himself and several of his trusted associates, including Robert Crowley (who took notes), Angleton made a strong case against Kennedy.

He claimed that Kennedy himself had approved the Bay of Pigs action but dropped it at the last minute out of moral weakness. Angleton believed that Kennedy then deliberately attacked the leadership of the CIA, firing Allen Dulles among others and basically accusing the Agency of bad faith and duplicity. Angleton was positive that Kennedy had fully approved all of the CIA’s actions in the Bay of Pigs mission but had blamed others to save his own reputation. The failure of the mission was, Angleton said, solely the result of Kennedy’s cowardice.

His negotiations behind the back of responsible American government agencies with the head of the Soviet Union smacked of treason and certainly undermined all of the intense work the CIA was doing to thwart Soviet imperialism both in Europe and Latin America.

But far and away the gravest charge leveled against the President was his behavior in not striking militarily at the armed Soviet troops and their deadly missiles stationed only a few miles away from American soil. Not only had Kennedy allowed the Soviets to get away with their aggression, he further removed American missiles from Turkey and materially weakened the American military position in Europe. As far as the passing of highly sensitive material to the Soviets was concerned, a furious Angleton claimed that this was high treason and the President should be removed from his high office.

Kennedy was far too popular to institute impeachment proceedings against him in the Congress.[77] Leaking the information about the CIA reports being given to Khruschev to the CIA’s many friendly press sources was also ruled out. If made public, this information would not only damage Kennedy, it would also damage the reputation of the CIA and unduly alarm its many highly placed international sources.

Finally, after a series of heated meetings over the period of a month, the subject of physical removal was not only broached but also developed. After all, the CIA had been responsible for a significant number of high-level political assassinations in the past, albeit in other countries,[78] and they had not only the means but also the conditioning to assist their planning.

In late February, the general outline of the plot was well set. Initial plans to blow up the presidential plane were scrapped. Secret Service and U.S. Air Force security were far too comprehensive to permit the clandestine placing of an explosive device on Air Force One.[79]

A second plan was to approach one of the President’s physicians, Dr. Max Jacobson, with a view to convince the doctor, who supplied and injected the President with amphetamines, to put certain fatal additives in Kennedy’s drugs. The CIA had a small but effective laboratory that specialized in rare poisons. This plan was rejected because it was felt Jacobson was unstable and associated with too many questionable individuals. Using his services would have necessitated removing the doctor as well, and Angleton was strongly against involving more untrustworthy people than necessary in his plot.

It was also suggested that since the President was known to sail in Massachusetts’ coastal waters, an assassin could either shoot him at a distance or attach an explosive charge to the bottom of his boat.[80] This was generally rejected by everyone but Angleton, because the President’s wife and children might well be on board and this was found to be unacceptable.

It was finally decided to shoot the President when he was in the open rather than in a building that could easily be sealed off and immediately searched. The political trip to Dallas had not yet been planned, and there was a great deal of practical work to do before any assassination could be successfully attempted.

If the President was shot in public, the assassin stood a high risk of being captured. If this happened, there was an even worse risk that he could somehow be traced to the CIA. The CIA therefore realized that it had to get the support of the entire governmental apparatus to be able to implement such a radical solution to what it considered to be the most serious threat to U.S. security in decades.

…And Everybody Else

According to a document found in R. T. Crowley’s papers, the officially organized assassination of John F. Kennedy by the CIA had the code name: “Operation ZIPPER.” This document, which is entitled “OPERATION ZIPPER Conference Record,” is reproduced in the appendix of this book, with this author’s subsequent explanation of the abbreviations used in it.[81] In the following, the events unfolding between March and November 1963 are reconstructed using both this document and R. T. Crowley’s comments to this author.

Early in March of 1963, the matter of the actual assassin became a pressing issue. Because of Crowley’s connections with the mob in Chicago (his father had been an important Chicago politician, parks commissioner, in the Kelly-Nash machine), he received the task of personally contacting members of the Chicago Mafia for advice and possible assistance.[82]

Chicago mob leader Sam Giancana, who had assisted in locating persons to carry out the CIA’s murder plots against Fidel Castro, loathed the Kennedy brothers but was far too shrewd to lend any of his identifiable men to cooperate in such a project. In two conferences in the Drake Hotel with Crowley, Giancana agreed to locate assassins who could be expected to perform in a professional manner. It was suggested that perhaps this recruitment might be better done outside of the United States. Rather than involve the Sicilian Mafia,[83] Giancana had one of his connections in that entity contact someone in the Corsican Mafia, the so-called Unione Corse, and it was from the ranks of this Marseille-based, well-knit, and very professional criminal organization that the assassins were found.[84]

The plotter’s reasoning was that if the killers were somehow caught before the CIA could kill them first, they could only identify the Chicago Mafia as their employers, and the Mafia would never identify the CIA as the real moving force. If this question arose, the Mafia could much more easily be silenced than foreign killers could.

Before the Corsicans were finally brought on board, a co-worker suggested shopping in Beirut, Lebanon, then a center of assassination professionals. The argument against this was that Corsicans would have no problems blending in the background in race conscious Dallas. Darker complexioned Lebanese or Arab professionals would certainly attract unwelcome notice in the provincial southern city.

Cuban militants had been ruled out in the beginning as too volatile and inclined to emotional excesses.

It would be Marseilles, then, instead of Beirut, that would supply the killers.[85]

Early March 1963, the Director of Central Intelligence, John McCone, began a series of delicate contacts outside his immediate circle.

The first government agency contacted was the FBI. The first conferences with its director John Edgar Hoover and Deputy Director William Sullivan were held on March 4th. According to the ZIPPER Document, the head of the FBI was permanently kept informed about the CIA’s actions by his top aide William Sullivan. Since Sullivan is described in the ZIPPER Document as a “participant” in the entire plot, it must be assumed that the FBI as a government department was collaborating with the CIA to achieve the projected goal.[86]

On March 13 and 15, the next delicate contacts were made to Walter Jenkins and Abe Fortas, top aides of Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson. According to the ZIPPER Document, Jenkins and Fortas, and with them of course the Vice President, were also kept informed about the rising plot.[87]

Not a bold man, Johnson’s concerns were entirely typical for him. He had forced himself on the 1960 Democratic ticket against Kennedy’s wishes, and throughout the thousand days of the Kennedy presidency, Johnson was treated with contempt by Kennedy’s people. Their favorite epithet was “Uncle Cornpone,” and it became common knowledge that Kennedy was planning to replace Johnson on the 1964 ticket. To accomplish this, Bobby Kennedy was preparing criminal charges against Bobby Baker, one of Johnson’s top aides.[88]

Johnson was aware that such charges would give the Kennedy faction the ability to force him off the ticket. Since Vice Presidents traditionally have run for the Presidency at the expiration of the mandatory two-term limit, any hope of gaining the White House would have been dashed. Johnson, therefore, became a willing if very timid participant in the ZIPPER project.

The two most important groups, the FBI and the future President of the United States, were hence quickly convinced to support the CIA:

“11. As both the Vice President and the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation has been slated for replacement by the Kennedy faction, their support for this project was practically guaranteed from the outset.

12. The Vice President came to believe that an attempt would be made on his life at the same time and was greatly concerned for his own safety.[[89]]

13. As the Vice President and the Director of the FBI were longtime neighbors and very friendly, the Director has repeatedly assured the [Vice] President that he was not considered a target and that no shots were fired at him in Dallas.” [LBJ was riding two cars behind JKF.][90]

 

There was, of course, another power to be taken into consideration, which could successfully prevent or reverse the attempted coup d’état: the Armed Forces of the United States of America. To integrate the U.S. Army into their putsch, the Director of the CIA conferred on March 28 with James Jesus Angelton to coordinate the objectives of the Joint Chiefs of Staff of the U.S. Army with the CIA’s objectives within Operation ZIPPER.

The fourth cautious contact was made on 9 April by James Jesus Angleton: Lt. Colonel Bevin Cass, United States Marine Corps, was U.S. Military Attaché to the Dominican Republic and had been involved with the logistics of the Trujillo assassination.[91] Cass was later Commanding Officer of the Marine Corps infantry training center at Quantico, Virginia.

Cass obviously served as a liaison officer between the Joint Chief of Staffs and the CIA, as an entry on 14 April 1963 indicates, according to which Cass was recommended by the Chairman of the JCS, General Lyman Lemnitzer. The fact that LtCol. Cass, as a “participant,” received a copy of the ZIPPER Document, that the Chairman of the JCS was either directly or via LtCol. Cass in frequent contact with the CIA regarding Kennedy’s assassination,[92] and finally because the JCS is expressly mentioned as a “government department directly concerned” in the ZIPPER document that had specific knowledge about the assassination, it must be concluded that the U.S. Armed Forces are the fourth big cornerstone of the assassination of John F. Kennedy and, hence, the overthrow of the democratically elected government of the people of the United States of America.[93]

In the middle of April, Chicago Mafia boss Sam Giancana advised Crowley that or the job was one hundred thousand dollars per man and there were four involved.

The immediate overseer of the execution of the plot was William King Harvey, former FBI agent and head of the Berlin operations base of the CIA.[94]

Harvey was responsible for the construction of the famous Berlin tunnel. Soviet intelligence was fully aware of this interdiction of their secure telephone lines in the Soviet sector of Berlin, and Harvey proudly garnered crates full of creative Soviet disinformation.

In addition to this, Angleton contacted Israeli intelligence for assistance.[95] The man he contacted was Amos Manor, then head of Israeli counterintelligence, the Shin Beth, and an old friend of Angleton.[96] Angleton had worked closely with Zionist organizations in Italy during and after World War II and in 1951 had been appointed to be the CIA’s top liaison with both the Shin Beth and the Mossad. Through Angleton’s good offices, the CIA developed a close working relationship with both Israeli agencies, and in order to facilitate his plot against Kennedy, Angleton sought an Israeli agent who would oversee the entire operation.

In actuality, the Israeli’s sole reason for existence, as far as Angleton was concerned, was to make entirely certain that the Corsican assassins were removed as soon as possible after their work was done.

The man sent to him was known as Binjamin Bauman and he came well recommended.[97] He had been one of the Stern Gang members, a terrorist group controlled by Menachim Begin, later Israeli Prime Minister, who had assisted in blowing up the King David Hotel in Jerusalem in 1946 with heavy loss of life. Begin was still wanted for murder in England, but Bauman had merely changed his name and went to work for the new state in an official capacity. This is a classical example of a terrorist becoming a freedom fighter.

John F. Kennedy was decidedly unpopular in Israel because of his firm determination to prevent that state from developing atomic weaponry.[98]

A safe house was to be set up in Maryland and there the Corsicans were to be killed, their bodies dissected and put into crab pots. The science of DNA had not yet been discovered, and what the famous soft-shelled crabs could not eat was to be dumped back into the water. Bones do not float.

In September of 1963, the visit by Kennedy to Dallas in November was announced and the Angleton assassination plan now had a specific time frame and geographical location with which to work.

The Corsicans would be flown to Canada at the end of October, met by members of the Mafia, and driven into the United States over the Windsor, Ontario, International Bridge. They would remain in a Mafia safe house in the Detroit area and then be flown in a private aircraft to the Dallas-Ft. Worth area:

 

52. French intelligence sources have indicated that a recruitment was made among members of the Corsican Mafia in Marseilles in mid-1963.

53. French intelligence sources have also indicated that they informed U.S. authorities in the American Embassy on two occasions about the recruitment of French underworld operatives for a political assassination in the United States.

54. It is not known if these reports were accepted at the Embassy or passed to Washington.

55. In the event, the Corsicans were sent to Canada where they blended in more easily with the French-speaking Quebec population. DIA analysis

 

 

The Corsicans were under no circumstances to be told of the role of the CIA in their project. They always considered that they were working solely for the American Mafia and no one else.

Weapons for the assassination were procured from Sam Cummings, CIA agent and head of INTERARMCO, a “proprietary” branch of the Agency.[99] This company, run by a British expert living in Warrentown, Virginia,[100] specialized in gun running for the CIA. It was an easy matter for Cummings to procure two silenced .38-caliber pistols, two 7.65-mm surplus Argentine army Mausers, and a specially constructed .223-caliber rifle, which was cut down and modified from a standard NATO weapon. Special bullets for the latter weapon, filled with mercury and designed to explode when entering a body, were manufactured and accompanied the weapon.

A check of CIA records located the names of several persons of interest to the Agency in the Dallas area. One was Lee Harvey Oswald, the returned defector, and the other was a man with whom the CIA had extensive and documented dealings. This was the Baltic aristocrat George De Mohrenschildt. Born into the lesser Russian nobility, De Mohrenschildt had served in a Polish cavalry unit, the Promorski Brigade. After the Russian revolution, he immigrated to the United States and acquired a degree in petroleum geology. He traveled in establishment social circles, spent a good deal of time out of the country, and certainly worked for the CIA. He had encountered Oswald quite by accident through his connection with the Russian community in Dallas and became his mentor and, according to a later CIA classified report, his lover.

When De Mohrenschildt passed on the information that Oswald had been hired at the Texas School Book Depository on October 16, it was later realized that this building immediately overlooked the route that Kennedy would take on his November 22 visit to Dallas. Oswald was now viewed as the perfect foil:

 

14. Oswald also was intimately connected with de Mohrenschildt who was certainly known to be a CIA operative. Oswald’s connections with this man were such as to guarantee that the CIA was aware of Oswald’s movements throughout his residence in the Dallas area.

15. When Oswald secured employment at the Texas Book Depository, de Mohrenschildt, according to an FBI report, reported this to the CIA. DIA analysis

 

77. The pseudo-defector, Oswald, became then important to the furtherance of the plan to kill the American president. He had strong connections with the Soviet Union; he had married a Soviet citizen; he had been noticed in public advocating support of Fidel Castro. His position in a tall building overlooking the parade route was a stroke of great good fortune to the plotters. Russian Intelligence study

 

 

 

In the first week of November, the assassination team had been flown to Dallas and spent two weeks in reconnaissance of the entire presidential route. It had initially been felt by the Corsican team leader that the shooting could be done as the cavalcade turned from Houston to Elm Streets. The presidential car would be moving very slowly as it negotiated the right angle turn and would present an excellent target. A shooting blind could be constructed on the top of the Dallas County Records Building on Houston Street that had an excellent line of sight to the Elm Street corner, but flanking buildings were higher and could provide an undesired observer a clear view of the shooters.

It was finally decided to use the Book Depository as one base. The railroad overpass was considered another excellent position but eventually ruled out because it was sure to be guarded. To its right, however, the heavy bushes and fences of the elevated “grassy knoll” proved to be irresistible. The official car with the President would be moving slowly past the spot and would permit a slightly downhill shot at very close range. Also, the extensive railroad yards behind this position gave ample room for an unobserved escape.

The final disposition of the assassination team was:

– A shooter in the Texas Book Depository, sixth floor;

– A shooter in the ornamental bushes just before the underpass;

– Two English-speaking personnel in suits and equipped with false law enforcement identification in the railroad yard behind the second shooter.

It was later reported that if anyone tried to investigate or interfere with the escape of the shooter, the two faux law enforcement agents would be able to display their identification and deflect pursuit.

Through his friendship with Oswald, De Mohrenschildt was aware that Oswald had bought a rifle from Klein’s Sporting Goods through the mail in March of that year. Both Oswald and his wife had mentioned this rifle to De Mohrenschildt and he also learned where the weapon was kept.

 

16. The existence and location of Oswald’s mail order Mannlicher-Carcano rifle in the garage of his wife’s friend, Ruth Paine, was also known to de Mohrenschildt at least one week prior to the assassination. DIA  analysis

 

Oswald was a bad shot with a rifle, the Warren Commission Report to the contrary, and had never even test shot this surplus Mannlicher-Carcano Italian army weapon.[101] Stories about him going to Dallas rifle ranges with others and firing the Carcano were total fabrications as was an accepted tale of him driving a car. Oswald had never shot the purported murder weapon, possessed no driver’s license, and did not know how to drive any kind of a car.[102]

On September 26, Oswald went to Mexico City by bus. He returned to Dallas on October 3. During this period, the official story is that Oswald went to the Soviet and Cuban embassies and made very vocal attempts to secure visas for trips to Russia via Cuba.[103] He was told, the official version explains, that a visa to go to Soviet Russia would take four months to process and the Cubans would not grant a visa for Cuba without a Soviet visa.

After the assassination, the CIA sent out a number of reports to various American agencies containing their version of the Oswald visit to include physical descriptions and photographs. All of this material was totally incorrect, and the person depicted was very obviously not Lee Harvey Oswald. What Oswald did while in Mexico is not known, but a CIA report of his dramatic visits to the two embassies is a deliberate falsehood:

 

78. Oswald was then reported by the CIA to have gone to Mexico City on 26 September, 1963 and while there, drew considerable attention to his presence in both the Soviet and Cuban embassies. What Oswald might have done in the Cuban embassy is not known for certain but there is no record of his ever having visited the Soviet embassy in Mexico at that time. CIA physical descriptions as well as photographs show that Oswald was not the man depicted. This appears strongly to be a poor attempt on the part of the CIA to embroil both the Soviet Union and Cuba in their affairs. Russian Intelligence study

 

79.Reports from the CIA concerning Oswald’s September/October visit to Mexico City are totally unreliable and were rejected by the FBI as being ‘in serious error.’ The reasons for Oswald’s visit to Mexico are completely obscure at this writing but the individual allegedly photographed by CIA surveillance in Mexico is to a certainty not Lee Oswald. As the CIA had pictures of the real Oswald, their reasons for producing such an obvious falsity are not easy to ascertain at this remove.DIA analysis

 

The famous Mexican trip was a typical official red herring deliberately dragged across the investigative trail. In point of fact, it matters not what Oswald did while in Mexico because this trip had no possible bearing on the allegations of assassination heaped onto a dead Oswald.

The patently obvious disinformation put out by the CIA about Oswald’s visit either indicates a frantic desire to be current with intelligence matters or, in a more sinister interpretation, a crude attempt to somehow link the assassination to the Soviet Union and Cuba via the predetermined assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald.

Had this course been followed during the sittings of the Warren Commission, it might well have forced the timid new President to make accusations against both Russia and Cuba that could quite conceivably lead to armed conflict. Since this is the one thing that Johnson frantically wished to avoid, the Mexico City visitation was relegated to the oblivion of the Warren Commission Report without official attention, but certainly deserving of the subsequent sarcasm from a legion of anti-establishment historians.

– Kennedy was shot on Friday, November 22, 1963.

– Oswald was shot on Sunday, November 24, 1963.

– Chicago Mafia leader, Sam Giancana, was shot to death in the basement of his home in June of 1975, prior to when he was supposed to appear before a Congressional committee.

– Oswald’s CIA connection in Dallas, George De Mohrenschildt, is alleged to have shot himself just prior to his scheduled appearance before a Congressional committee in March of 1977.

Arranging a murder is relatively simple, but arranging a suicide is much more difficult.

The Warren Commission was instituted shortly after the Dallas murders, evidence was gathered and presented to the Commission and a final report was duly released. Predictably, it named Lee Harvey Oswald as the sole assassin and, further, carefully played down the strong connections his killer, Jack Rubenstein, had with the Chicago mob.

Historians have discussed the number of witnesses who died in the following months and years. The number tends to raise suspicions of foul play but, so far, no hard evidence of a concerted effort to silence witnesses has been produced. Considering the vast extent of the conspiracy to assassinate Kennedy and overthrow his administration, the conclusions are more than obvious.

The Warren Report included a number of issues intended to bolster their case against Oswald. One was the attempt to shoot General Edwin Walker, a retired right wing professional Army officer resident in Dallas, on April 12, 1963. That Oswald had nothing to do with this incident is obvious from examining the published evidence and investigative reports. The General was shot at by a .30-06 rifle. Eyewitnesses all agreed that two dark complexioned men were seen driving away from the scene. Oswald did not own such a gun, was not dark complexioned, and did not drive. The Walker story was supplied by Oswald’s terrified widow who desperately was attempting to avoid being sent back to Russia. She spoke no English and, in general, did what she was told.[104] Her story of the Walker incident has no value whatsoever and could never have been used in a court of law.

Of the four Corsicans, three vanished from the face of the earth after being escorted to a private plane at a Dallas area airfield about 2:30 on the afternoon of November 22. They were accompanied by Mr. Bauman and were informed they would be flown first to New Orleans, where the pilot, David Ferrie, was based, and thence to a safe house in Maryland. From the moment they climbed into the two-engined aircraft, they were never seen again.

One of the assassins, the man who fired at Kennedy from nearly point blank range and blew out the presidential brains, decided to work his way back to Marseilles on his own. For some unknown reason, he took a commercial bus to Mexico and from there he ended up in Barcelona, Spain. All that is known of him is the name he used on his passport: Guidobaldo Fini.

 

78….It is understood that the actual assassins were subsequently removed in a wet action but that one apparently escaped and has been the object of intense searches in France and Italy by elements of the CIA. Russian Intelligence study

 

80.The hit team was flown away in an aircraft piloted by a CIA contract pilot named David Ferrie from New Orleans. They subsequently vanished without a trace. Rumors of the survival of one of the team are persistent but not proven  DIA analysis

 

 

There was one other murder that bears directly on the Kennedy assassination. On October 12, 1964, shortly after noon, Mary Pinchot Meyer, 44, former wife of Cord Meyer, Jr., a senior CIA official, was found shot to death in a wooded area near her Georgetown studio. She had been shot once in the head and once in the upper body, a professional technique of assassination.

A dazed black day-laborer was found in the vicinity by police and, although not matching the description of an eyewitness, was arrested and put on trial for murder. The suspect, Ray Crump, had no coherent statement for the police at the time of his arrest, and an intensive search of the area failed to locate the handgun used in the killing. This, in spite of the fact that the suspect was apprehended in the immediate area of the killing.[105]

Period press reports indicate that a large number of CIA personnel were present immediately after the discovery of the body.[106]

Crump was acquitted at his subsequent trial.[107] The prosecution depicted him as a rapist, but he had no record of such offenses. He had been seen waiting on a Washington street corner for day labor prior to being found in a dazed condition on the towpath near Mary Meyer’s body.[108]

Her husband, Cord Meyer, Jr., was a close personal friend of James Angleton and a very bitter enemy of John Kennedy. Meyer’s intense hatred of Kennedy was due to the attentions that Kennedy had once paid to his ex-wife. In point of fact, Mary Pinchot Meyer had been Kennedy’s long-term mistress subsequent to her divorce from her husband. Mrs. Meyer had introduced LSD to the President during her many visits to the White House.[109]

Immediately after her murder, Crowley associate James Angleton was caught in her Georgetown studio going through her papers. He later removed her diary and kept it. Robert Crowley, who saw it, stated that it contained a significant number of references to her connection with Kennedy, the use of drugs at White House sex parties, and some very bitter comments about the role of her former husband’s agency in the death of her lover the year before.

Mary Meyer had made angry and indiscreet comments about her views on her suspicions of CIA involvement in the Kennedy killing to a number of her neighbors, a significant number of whom had husbands that were senior CIA officials.

This murder is still listed as unsolved, and the police records have disappeared. Shortly after her murder, her bitter former husband painted “Tough luck, Mary” on the Key Bridge near the site of her death.[110]

John Kennedy may have been a charismatic man but neither he nor his family could be considered either ethical or moral. The President and his brother, the Attorney General of the United States, repeatedly betrayed their wives, their criminal associates, their loyal Cuban supporters, and many others with alacrity when it suited them to do so.

According to the CIA, the FBI, the Vice President, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff, they also betrayed important intelligence secrets to the Soviet Union for political gain. Hence, John F. Kennedy had to die:

 

“6. This removal [of JFK] is the result of a consensus between the various concerned official agencies.”[111]

 

79 From this brief study, it may be seen that the American President was certainly killed by orders of high officials in the CIA, working in close conjunction with very high American military leaders. It was the CIA belief that Kennedy was not only circumventing their own mapped-out destruction of Fidel Castro by assassination and invasion but actively engaged in contacts with the Soviet Union to betray the CIA actions.

80. The American military leaders (known as the Joint Chiefs of Staff) were also determined upon the same goals, hence both of them worked together to ensure the removal of a President who acted against their best interests and to have him replaced with a weaker man whom they believed they could better control.

81. President Johnson, Kennedy’s successor, was very much under the control of the military and CIA during his term in office and permitted an enormous escalation in Southeast Asia. The destruction of the Communist movement in that area was of paramount importance to both groups.

Russian Intelligence study

 

 

1. The Soviet analysis of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy contains material gleaned from American sources both official and unofficial i.e., media coverage, etc. Some of this material obviously stems from sources located inside various agencies. To date, none of these have been identified. Russian Intelligence study

 

 

81. A study of the Soviet report indicates very clearly that the Russians have significant and very high level sources within both the Central Intelligence Agency and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Their possession of material relating to certain highly classified American military papers has been referred to the CIC for investigation and action. DIA analysis

Aftermath

The chapter “The Official Cover Up” already addresses briefly what happened after the actual assassinationpieces of

 

“10. Following the removal of the President, the new President, who had been fully briefed prior to the act, agreed ‘in the interest of national concerns’ to appoint a special Commission chaired by the Chief Justice, for the purpose of ‘setting public concerns to rest.’ Mr. Angleton was in complete control of all evidence presented to this Committee and worked closely in conjunction with Mr. Sullivan of the FBI to ensure that nothing was brought before the Committee that it did not wish to acknowledge.”

 

It is also interesting that Gerald Ford, who became President of the United States of America in 1974, helped FBI Director J. E. Hoover, and it is hard to believe that by so doing, he did not know that he actively participated in the cover-up of the putsch:

“16. Representative Ford, R, of Michigan, a member of the Commission, is working closely with Director Hoover and reports all incoming information directly to him.”

The CIA’s many supporters within the media did their best to hide and distort the truth:

“17. Full cooperation with friendly media sources has ensured that the public attention has been drawn to Oswald as the sole killer. […]

32. In the matter of the public perception of the Dallas action, extensive use has been made of Agency connections with major American media organs, i.e., the New York Times and the Washington Post. The Times is strongly supporting the Commission and its findings and we are assured that they will continue to do so. The same attitude has been clearly and strongly expressed by the Post.”

A very interesting effect on U.S. foreign policy had the fact that the French Intelligence Services, due to their informants in the Unione Corse, had knowledge about the real assassins of JFK and threatened the United States if they would not make certain concessions:

“25. Also, the [French President] General [Charles] DeGaulle stated that he was aware through French intelligence reports, that the assassins of the President were French citizens. The knowledge of the French government at the highest level that some kind of high level political assassination was apparently passed on to the U.S. Embassy in Paris but there is no record of any of these warnings having been passed on to Washington. If, in fact, these warnings were passed, there was obviously no heed paid to them.

26. Because it is viewed as vital that the French become involved in NATO and to assuage the concerns of the General, guarantees were given both by the [U.S.] President and the DCI [Director of Central Intelligence…] that the United States would actively support French commercial interests in French Indo China in return for French cooperation with NATO. There were extensive French rubber plantations in Vietnam as well as significant off-shore oil deposits.

28. The General was reassured repeatedly on these points and is now apparently in agreement with U.S. aims in South East Asia. He made several remarks about the trade in opium in that area being extremely lucrative and stated that he had his own problems with narcotics traffic in the Mediterranean area. With increasing American military involvement in Vietnam and Laos, the increase in opium smuggling was highly significant and has not stopped to this day. It is a published fact that much of the movement of raw opium from the so-called Golden Triangle was effected by the CIA and its Air America private airforce.

29. It is not believed, and electronic surveillance of the President’s lines of communication while in the United States does not support, the possibility that he might have actual knowledge of any American involvement, or projected involvement, in this sensitive area.

30. Both the Agency and the President feel that the French President has ‘fired a shot across our bows’ but that these issues have now become resolved. The President feels, however, that the French will have to be watched carefully in the future and that if American interests become established in French Indo China, we had best consider our own interests at that time.”

Considering that the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff had been more than eager to start a war against Cuba, it might not be surprising that they were quite open to the French “request” for help in French Indo China, which could be more appropriately called “blackmailing America into war.” In fact, the Tonkin incident in 1965, which triggered America’s involvement in the Vietnam War, reads like an implementation of what the U.S. Army had unsuccessfully planned only a few years earlier for Cuba, as James Bamford correctly noticed.[112]

The CIA’s statement about “American involvement” in the “trade in opium” in Indochina, and its assertion that “much of the movement of raw opium […] was effected by the CIA and its Air America private airforce”, is a topic that will be dealt with in a subsequent book, offering much more secret documentation on the U.S. government as one of the major drug traffickers of the world.

Envoy

In matters as prolix and entangled as the Kennedy assassination, there can never be an actual closure. There can, however, be a final word on the subject and the clearest one can be found in John Jacob Nutter’s excellent study, The CIA’s Black Ops: Covert Action, Foreign Policy, and Democracy.[113] The author lists a number of the more important delinquencies of the Central Intelligence Agency and it cannot be improved upon:

“–   spying on Americans for their political beliefs;

– opening the mail of Americans not suspected of any crime;

– harassing and disrupting legal American political groups simply for their dissenting views;

– testing neurochemical and biological agents (such as LSD) and toxins on American citizens without their consent or knowledge, covering up these activities, and destroying evidence of them;

– engaging in secret wars with neither the consent nor knowledge of Congress;

– engaging in acts of war or acts that created a high probability of war without the consent or knowledge of Congress;

– purposely concealing these acts or intentionally misleading members of the government who have a right to know about such activities;

– employing the policies and resources of intelligence agencies to further the goals of private corporations and political groups;

– subverting democratic processes and sponsoring the functional equivalents of coups d’etat in friendly and allied countries;

– creating private, off-the-books intelligence and operations organizations in deliberate attempts to evade U.S. law;

– negotiating with terrorists and paying ransom for hostages; and

– arming insurgent and terrorist organizations with modern weapons in spite of their anti-American positions.”

 

 

 

Aaron: Add the scanned official page here.

 

 

Defense Intelligence Agency Washington, DC 20301

 

20 APRIL 1978

SUBJECT: Soviet Intelligence Report on Assassination of President KENNEDY

TO: DIRECTOR

 

The following report has been prepared at your request in response to a Soviet report on the assassination of President John F. KENNEDY on 22 NOV 1963. The Soviet document (see Enclosure a) has been obtained from a fully reliable source and duly authenticated.

This report is an analysis of the Soviet document and is done on a paragraph-by-paragraph basis.

Material in this analysis has been taken from a number of sources indicated in the Appendix and is to be considered classified at the highest level. Nothing contained in this report may be disseminated to any individual or agency without prior written permission of the Director or his appointed deputy.

This agency does not assume, and cannot verify, the correctness of the material contained herein, although every reasonable effort has been made to do so. Any use of information contained in this report must be paraphrased and sources, either individual or agency, must not be credited.

/s/  VEDDER B. DRISCOLL Colonel, USA Chief, Soviet/Warsaw Pact1 Division Directorate for Intelligence Research

1 Enclosure

Appendix

Note: The Russian language file is not attached to this report and exists in official translation only.

 

Enclosure A

The Soviet Intelligence Study (translation)

1. On 22 November, 1963, American President John Kennedy was shot and killed during a political motor trip through the Texas city of Dallas. The President was riding at the head of the procession in his official state car, seated in the right rear with his wife on his left side. Seated in front of him was the Governor of Texas and his wife, also on his left side. The vehicle was an open car without side or top protection of any kind. There was a pilot car in front, about a hundred feet, and the President’s car was flanked by motorcycle outriders located two to a side roughly parallel with the rear wheels of the State car.

2. The President and his party were driving at a speed of about 20 kilometers per hour through the built-up area of Dallas and greeted the many people lining the streets along his route. Security was supplied by the Secret Service supplemented by local police. There were two Secret Service agents in the front of the car. One was driving the car. Other agents were in cars following the Presidential vehicle and Dallas police on motorbikes were on both sides of the Presidential car but at the rear of it. There was a pilot car in front of the President’s car but it was at some distance away.

3. The course of the journey was almost past all the occupied area. The cars then turned sharply to the right and then again to the left to go to the motorway leading to a meeting hall where the President was to speak at a dinner. It is considered very bad security for such an official drive to decrease its speed or to make unnecessary turnings or stops. (Historical note: It was just this problem that led directly to positioning the Austrian Heir in front of waiting assassins at Sarajevo in 1914.) The route was set by agents of the Secret Service and published in the Dallas newspapers before the arrival of the President and his party.

4. After the last turning to the left, the cars passed a tall building on the right side of the street that was used as a warehouse for the storage of school books. This building was six stories tall and had a number of workers assigned to it. There were no official security people in this building, either on the roof or at the windows. Also, there were no security agents along the roadway on either side. All security agents were riding either in the Presidential car (two in the front) and in the following vehicles.

5. As the President’s state car passed this building, some shots were heard. The exact source and number of these shots was never entirely determined. Some observers thought that the shots came from above and behind while many more observers in the area stated that the shots came from the front and to the right of the car. There was a small area with a decorative building and some trees and bushes there and many saw unidentified people in this area. Many people standing in front of this area to watch the cars stated that shots came from behind them.

6. When the first shots were fired, the President was seen to lean forward and clutch at his throat with both hands. Immediately when this happened, the Secret Service driver of the President’s state car slowed down the vehicle until it was almost stopped. This was a direct breach of their training which stated that in such events where firing occurred, the driver of the President’s car would immediately drive away as quickly as possible.

7. At the same time as the first shot, there was a second one, this one from behind and above. This bullet struck the Governor, sitting in front of the President and slightly to his right, in the right upper shoulder. The bullet went downwards into the chest cavity, breaking ribs, struck his wrist and lodged in his left upper thigh. There were then two shots fired at the President’s car. The first shot initiated the action and this one appears to have hit the President in the throat. If so, it must have been fired from in front of the car, not behind it.

8. Right at that moment, there was one other shot. The shell obviously struck the President on the upper rear of the right side of his head, throwing him back and to the left. Also, at this time, blood, pieces of skull and brains could be seen flying to the left where the motorbike police guard was struck with this material on his right side and on the right side of his motorbike.

9. Immediately after this final shot, the driver then began to increase his speed and the cars all went at increasing speed down under the tunnel.

10. The fatally injured President and the seriously injured Governor were very quickly taken to a nearby hospital for treatment. The President was declared as dead and his body was removed, by force, to an aircraft and flown to Washington. The badly wounded Governor was treated at the hospital for his wounds and survived.

11. Within moments of the shots fired at the President, a Dallas motorcycle police officer ran into the book building and up to the second floor in the company of the manager of the establishment. Here, the policeman encountered a man later positively identified as one Lee Harvey Oswald, an employee of the book storage company. Oswald was drinking a Coca-Cola and appeared to be entirely calm and collected. (Later it was said that he had rushed down four flights of steps past other employees in a few moments after allegedly shooting the President. It is noted from the records that none of the other employees on the staircase ever saw Oswald passing them.) The elevator which moved freight and personnel between the floors was halted at the sixth floor and turned off so that it could not be recalled to persons below wishing to use it.

12. After meeting the police officer and apparently finishing his drink, Oswald went down to the main floor and left the building, unnoticed.

13. Oswald then went to his apartment by a public bus and on foot, dressed in new clothes and left the building. His apartment manager observed that a police car stopped in front of the building and blew its horn several times. She was unaware of the reason for this.

14. Oswald was then stated to have been halted by a local police officer whom he then was alleged to have shot dead. The only witness who positively identified Oswald as the shooter was considered to be unstable and unreliable.

15. Oswald then entered a motion picture house and was later arrested there by the police. He was beaten in the face by the police and taken into their custody.

16. When the captured Oswald was photographed by the reporters, he claimed that he was not guilty of shooting anyone and this was a position he maintained throughout his interrogations.

17. All records of his interrogation, carried out by the Dallas police and the Secret Service, were subsequently destroyed without a trace.

18. During the course of the interrogations, Oswald was repeatedly led up and down  very crowded corridors of the police headquarters with no thought of security. This is an obvious breach of elementary security that was noted at the time by reporters. It now appears that Oswald’s killer was seen and photographed in the crowds in the building.

19. The American Marine defector, Lee Harvey Oswald, entered the Soviet Union in October of 1959. Initially, Oswald, who indicated he wanted to “defect” and reside in the Soviet Union, was the object of some suspicion by Soviet intelligence authorities. He was at first denied entrance, attempted a “suicide” attempt and only when he was more extensively interrogated by competent agents was it discovered that he was in possession of material that potentially had a great intelligence value.

20. Oswald, who as a U.S. Marine, was stationed at the Atsugi air field in Japan, had been connected with the Central Intelligence Agency’s U-2 intelligence-gathering aircraft program and was in possession of technical manuals and papers concerning these aircraft and their use in overflights of the Soviet Union.

21. The subject proved to be most cooperative and a technical analysis of his documentation indicated that he was certainly being truthful with Soviet authorities. In addition to the manuals, Oswald was able to supply Soviet authorities with a wealth of material, much of which was unknown and relatively current. As a direct result of analysis of the Oswald material, it became possible to intercept and shoot down a U2 aircraft flown by CIA employee Gary Powers.

22. On the basis of the quality of this material, Oswald was granted asylum in the Soviet Union and permitted to settle in Minsk under the supervision of the Ministry of the Interior. This was partially to reward him for his cooperation and also to remove him from the possible influence of American authorities at the Embassy in Moscow.

23. Oswald worked in a radio factory, was given a subsidized apartment in Minsk and kept under constant surveillance. He was very pro-Russian, learned to speak and read the language, albeit not with native fluency, and behaved himself well in his new surroundings.

24. Although Oswald was a known homosexual, he nevertheless expressed an interest in women as well and his several casual romantic affairs with both men and women were duly noted.

25. Oswald became involved with Marina Nikolaevna Prusakova, the niece of a Minsk-based intelligence official. He wished to marry this woman who was attractive but cold and ambitious. She wished to leave the Soviet Union and emigrate to the United States for purely economic reasons. Since his marrying a Soviet citizen under his circumstances was often most difficult, Oswald began to speak more and more confidentially with his intelligence contacts in Minsk. He finally revealed that he was an agent for the United States Office of Naval Intelligence and had been recruited by them to act as a conduit between their office and Soviet intelligence.

26. The official material on the CIA operations was entirely authentic and had been supplied to Oswald by his controllers at the ONI. It was apparent, and Oswald repeatedly stated, that the CIA was completely unaware of the removal of sensitive documents from their offices. This removal, Oswald stated, was effected by the ONI personnel stationed at Atsugi air field. Oswald was unaware of the reasons for this operation but had been repeatedly assured that the mission was considered of great national importance and that if he proved to be successful, he would be afforded additional and profitable future employment. It appears that Oswald was considered to be a one time operative and was expendable. His purpose was to establish a reputation as a pro-Russian individual who would then “defect” to the Soviet Union and pass over the U2 material. He did not seem to realize at the time he “defected” that once he had been permitted to live in the Soviet Union, on an official governmental subsidy, returning to America would be very difficult, if not impossible.

27. Now, with his romantic, and very impractical, attachment to Prusakova, he was being pressured by her to marry and then take her with him back to the United States. Oswald was informed that this was not a possible option for him. He became very emotional and difficult to deal with but finally made the suggestion that if he were allowed to marry and return to the United States, he would agree to work in reality for the Soviet Union.

28. After referring this matter to higher authority, it was decided to accede to Oswald’s requests, especially since he was of no further use to Soviet intelligence and might well be of some service while resident in America.

29. Marriage was permitted and his return was expedited both by the Soviet authorities and the Americans who were informed, via a letter from Oswald, that he was in possession of intelligence material of value to them. This valuable information was duly given to him, a reversal to be noted on his original mission!

30. Oswald was given prepared information of such a nature as to impress American intelligence and permitted to contact intelligence officials in the American Embassy in Moscow. He was then permitted by the Americans to return to the United States with his new wife.

31. In America, Oswald no longer worked with the ONI because he was not able to further assist them. Besides, he was viewed as dangerous because he had knowledge of the ONI theft and use of CIA documents.

32. While in America, Oswald then worked as a paid informant for the Federal Bureau of Investigation who had contacted him when he returned and requested his assistance with domestic surveillance against pro-Soviet groups. He was assigned, in New Orleans, the task of infiltrating the anti-Castro groups which were nominally under the control of the CIA.

33. It is noted that there exists a very strong rivalry between the FBI and the CIA. The former is nominally in charge of domestic counterintelligence and the latter in charge of foreign intelligence. They have been fighting for power ever since the CIA was first formed in 1947. Oswald has stated that the FBI was aware of this ONI-sponsored defection with stolen CIA U2 documents but this is not a proven matter.

34. Later, Oswald was transferred to Dallas, Texas, by the FBI and he then secured a position at a firm which dealt in very secret photographic matters. Here, he was able to supply both the FBI and Soviet intelligence with identical data.

35. FBI reports, kept secret, show clearly that Oswald was paid by the FBI as an informant.

36. In New Orleans, a center of Cuban insurgent activity, Oswald was in direct contact with FBI officials and worked for a Guy Bannister, former FBI agent. Oswald infiltrated the ranks of Cuban insurgents and reported his findings to the FBI .

37. At that time, the FBI was involved, at the request of the Attorney General, Robert Kennedy, in watching the clandestine activities of the CIA and its Alpha and Omega special commando groups, some of whom were in training in the New Orleans area.

38. The American President was greatly concerned that continued and fully unauthorized para-military action against Cuba might upset the balance he had achieved in seeking peace with the Soviet Union.

39. It is knows from informants inside the CIA and also from Cuban double agents that the CIA was, in conjunction with the highest American military leadership, to force an American invasion of Cuba.

40. These joint plans, which consisted of acts of extreme provocation by American units against American property and citizens,  were unknown to Kennedy.

41. When the American President discovered that Cuban insurgents, under the control of the CIA and with the support of the highest military leadership, were embarked on a course of launching military action against American naval bases under the cover of being Cuban regular troops, he at once ordered a halt.

42. Kennedy also informed Premier Khrushchev directly of these planned actions and assured him that he had prevented them from being executed. The Premier expressed his gratitude and hoped that Kennedy would be successful in enforcing his will and preventing any other such adventures.

43. The American President, unsure of the depth of his influence with the leadership of the American military and the CIA, ordered the FBI to investigate these matters and ordered the Director, Hoover, to report directly to him on his findings.

44. Oswald was a part of the FBI surveillance of the Cuban insurgents in the New Orleans area.

45. Oswald made a number of public appearances passing out pro-Castro leaflets in order to ingratiate himself with the insurgents.

46. At the FBI request, a local television station filmed Oswald passing out these leaflets and had this film shown on local stations in order to enhance Oswald’s  image. When his mission was finished, Oswald was then sent to Dallas to observe and penetrate the Russian colony there.

47. Two days after the shooting of the American President, the alleged assassin, Oswald was shot to death in the basement of the Dallas Police Department while he was being transferred to another jail. On the day of the assassination, November 22, FBI Chief Hoover notified the authorities in Dallas that Oswald should be given special security.

48. This killing was done in the presence of many armed police officers by a known criminal and associate of the American Mafia named Jack Rubenstein, or “Ruby” as he was also known. “Ruby” had a long past of criminal association with the Mafia in Chicago, Illinois, a major area of gangster control in America. “Ruby” had once worked for the famous Al Capone and then for Sam Giancana. This man was head of the Chicago mob at the time of the assassination.

49. “Ruby” was the owner of a drinking establishment in Dallas that specialized in dancing by naked women and was also a close friend of many police officers in Dallas. “Ruby” had been seen and photographed in the Dallas police department while Oswald was being interrogated. It should be noted here that suspect Oswald was very often taken by Dallas police out into the completely unguarded hallways of the building and in the presence of many persons unknown to the police. This is viewed as either an attempt to have Oswald killed or a very incompetent and stupid breach of basic security.

50. The timing by “Ruby” of his entrance into the guarded basement was far too convenient to be accidental. Also, the method of his shooting of Oswald showed a completely professional approach. “Ruby” stepped out from between two policeman holding a revolver down along his leg to avoid detection. As he stepped towards the suspect, “Ruby” raised his right hand with the revolver and fired upwards into Oswald’s body. The bullet severed major arteries and guaranteed Oswald’s death.

51. Although “Ruby” subsequently pretended to be mentally disturbed, his actions showed professional calculation to a degree. This play-acting was continued into his trial and afterwards. “Ruby” was convicted of the murder of Oswald and sentenced to death. He died in prison of cancer in January of 1967 after an appeal from his sentence had been granted by the court judge. Information indicates that he was given a fatal injection.

52. “Ruby’s” statements should not be confused with his actions. He was a professional criminal, had excellent connections with the Dallas police, had been involved with activities in Cuba and gun running into that country and some evidence has been produced to show that he and Oswald had knowledge of each other.

53. Like Oswald, “Ruby” too had homosexual activities and one public witness firmly placed Oswald in “Ruby’s” club prior to the assassination.

54. In view of later developments and disclosures, the use of a Chicago killer with local Mafia connections to kill Oswald is not surprising. Stories of “Ruby’s” eccentricity were highlighted by American authorities to make it appear that he, like suspect Oswald, was an eccentric, single individual who acted out of emotion and not under orders.

55. As in the case of Oswald, there was never a proven motive for “Ruby’s” acts. Oswald had no reason whatsoever to shoot the President, had never committed any proven acts of violence. Although he was purported to have shot at a fascist General, it was badly presented and in all probability was a “red herring” to “prove” Oswald’s desire to shoot people. “Ruby”, a professional criminal with a long record of violence, claimed he shot Oswald to “protect” the President’s wife from testifying. This statement appears to be an obvious part of “Ruby’s” attempt to defend himself by claiming to be mad.

56. It is obvious that “Ruby” killed Oswald to silence him. Since Oswald was not involved in the killing of the President, continued interrogation of him leading to a court trial would have very strongly exposed the weakness of the American government’s attempt to blame him for the crime.

57. Silencing Oswald promptly was a matter of serious importance for the actual killers.

59. Rubenstein was not a man of intelligence but was a devoted member of the American criminal network.

60. Just prior to the assassination, Rubenstein was in a meeting with representatives of the criminal network and was told that he was to be held in readiness to kill someone who might be in Dallas police custody.

61. It was felt that Rubenstein was a well-connected man with the Dallas police department and that he might have access to the building without a challenge. He was also informed that he could be considered a “great hero” in the eyes of the American public. Rubenstein was a man of little self-worth and this approach strongly influenced him in his future actions.

62. A very large number of published books about the assassination have appeared since the year 1963. Most of these books are worthless from a historical point of view. They represent the views of obsessed people and twist information only to suit the author’s beliefs.

63. There are three main ideas written about:

a. The American gangsters killed the President because his brother, the American  Attorney General, was persecuting them;

b. Cuban refugees felt that Mr. Kennedy had deserted their cause of ousting  Cuban chief of state Castro;

c. Various American power groups such as the capitalist business owners, fascist political groups, racists, internal and external intelligence organization either  singly or in combination are identified.

64. American officials have not only made no effort to silence these writers but in many cases have encouraged them. The government feels, as numerous confidential reports indicate, that the more lunatic books appear, the better. This way, the real truth is so concealed as to be impenetrable.

65. It was initially of great concern to our government that individuals inside the American government were utilizing Oswald’s “Communist/Marxist” appearance to suggest that the assassination was of a Soviet origin.

66. In order to neutralize this very dangerous theme, immediately after the assassination, the Soviet Union fully cooperated with American investigating bodies and supplied material to them showing very clearly that Oswald was not carrying out any Soviet designs.

67. Also, false defectors were used to convince the Americans that Oswald was considered a lunatic by the Soviet Union, and had not been connected with the Soviet intelligence apparatus in any way. He was, of course, connected but it was imperative to disassociate the Soviet Union with the theory that Oswald, an American intelligence operative, had been in collusion with them concerning the assassination.

68. The false defector Nosenko, a provable member of Soviet intelligence, was given a scenario that matched so closely the personal attitudes of Mr. Hoover of the FBI that this scenario was then officially supported by Mr. Hoover and his bureau.

69. Angleton of the CIA at once suspected Nosenko’s real mission and subjected him to intense interrogation but finally, Nosenko has been accepted as a legitimate defector with valuable information on Oswald.

70. Because of this business, Angleton was forced to resign his post as chief of counter intelligence. This has been considered a most fortunate byproduct of the controversy.

71. The FBI has accepted the legitimacy of Nosenko and his material precisely because it suited them to do so. It was also later the official position of the CIA because the issue dealt specifically with the involvement, or non-involvement, between Oswald, a private party, and the organs of Soviet intelligence. Since there was no mention of Oswald’s connection with American intelligence, this was of great importance to both agencies.

72. It is known now that the American gangsters had very close relations with the Central Intelligence Agency. This relationship began during the war when the American OSS made connections with the Sicilian members of the American gangs in order to assist them against the fascists. The man who performed this liaison was Angleton, later head of counter intelligence for the CIA. These gangster contacts were later utilized by the CIA for its own ends.

73. American foreign policy was, and still is, firmly in the hands of the CIA. It alone makes determinations as to which nation is to be favored and which is to be punished. No nation is permitted to be a neutral; all have to be either in the US camp or are its enemies. Most often, the wishes of American business are paramount in the determination as to which nation will receive US support and which will not only be denied this support but attacked. It is the American CIA and not the Soviet Union, that had divided the world into two warring camps.

74. American, and most especially the CIA, attempts to destabilize a Communist state i.e., Cuba, could not be permitted by the Soviet leadership. Castro was a most valuable client in that he provided an excellent base of intelligence and political operations in the American hemisphere. As the CIA had been setting up its own ring of hostile states surrounding the Soviet Union, Cuba was viewed officially as a completely legitimate area of political expansion. Threats of invasion and physical actions against Cuba were viewed by the Chairman as threats against the Soviet Union itself.” “It is an absolute fact that both the American President, Kennedy, and his brother, the American Attorney General, were especially active in a sexual sense. A number of sexually explicit pictures of the President engaging in sexual acts are in the official files as are several pictures of the Attorney General, taken while on a visit to Moscow in 1961.

75. The President was aware that a number of these pictures were in Soviet hands and acted accordingly. In addition to a regular parade of whores into the White House, it was also reliably reported from several sources that the President was a heavy user of various kinds of illegal narcotics. It is also known from medical reports that the President suffered from a chronic venereal disease for which he was receiving medical treatment.

76. In order to better cooperate with the Soviet Union, President Kennedy used to regularly keep in close, private communication with the Chairman. These contacts were kept private to prevent negative influences from the State Department and most certainly from the Central Intelligence Agency. The President said several times that he did not trust this agency who was bent on stirring up a war between the two nations. Through this personal contact, many matters that might have escalated due to the interference of others were peacefully settled.

77. The pseudo-defector, Oswald, became then important to the furtherance of the plan to kill the American president. He had strong connections with the Soviet Union; he had married a Soviet citizen; he had been noticed in public advocating support of Fidel Castro. His position in a tall building overlooking the parade route was a stroke of great good fortune to the plotters.

78. Oswald was then reported by the CIA to have gone to Mexico City on 26 September, 1963 and while there, drew considerable attention to his presence in both the Soviet and Cuban embassies. What Oswald might have done in the Cuban embassy is not known for certain but there is no record of his ever having visited the Soviet embassy in Mexico at that time. CIA physical descriptions as well as photographs show that Oswald was not the man depicted. This appears strongly to be a poor attempt on the part of the CIA to embroil both the Soviet Union and Cuba in their affairs.” “It is understood that the actual assassins were subsequently removed in a wet action but that one apparently escaped and has been the object of intense searches in France and Italy by elements of the CIA.

79 From this brief study, it may be seen that the American President was certainly killed by orders of high officials in the CIA, working in close conjunction with very high American military leaders. It was the CIA belief that Kennedy was not only circumventing their own mapped-out destruction of Fidel Castro by assassination and invasion but actively engaged in contacts with the Soviet Union to betray the CIA actions.

80. The American military leaders (known as the Joint Chiefs of Staff) were also determined upon the same goals, hence both of them worked together to ensure the removal of a President who acted against their best interests and to have him replaced with a weaker man whom they believed they could better control.

81. President Johnson, Kennedy’s successor, was very much under the control of the military and CIA during his term in office and permitted an enormous escalation in Southeast Asia. The destruction of the Communist movement in that area was of paramount importance to both groups.

 

The Defense Intelligence Agency Report

 

1. The Soviet analysis of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy contains material gleaned from American sources both official and unofficial i.e., media coverage, etc. Some of this material obviously stems from sources located inside various agencies. To date, none of these have been identified.

2. It has long been a concern of the leadership and intelligence organs of the Soviet Union that blame has been attached to them for this assassination.

3. The Soviets felt in the days immediately following the assassination that a plot was being developed, or had been developed prior to the act, that would serve to blame either the Cuban government or themselves for this action.

4. It was felt that the identification of Lee Harvey Oswald as the sole assassin was intended to implicate the Soviet Union in the act because Oswald had been a very vocal supporter of the Marxist theory; had defected to the Soviet Union and had married a Soviet woman with intelligence connections.

5. The strongly stated official policy of putting Oswald forward as the sole assassin greatly alarmed the Soviet Union which had already weathered the very serious Cuban Missile Crisis, a situation that came perilously close to an atomic war between the two powers.

6. The Soviet leadership had established a strong , albeit secret, connection between themselves and the American President but with his death, this clandestine communications channel was closed.

7. The Soviets promptly dispatched a number of senior intelligence personnel and files to Washington in order to reassure President Johnson and his top aides that the Soviet Union had no hand in the assassination.

8. Johnson himself was a badly frightened man who, having witnessed the murder of his predecessor, lived in constant dread of a similar attack on himself. He also had no stomach for the kind of international brinkmanship as practiced by Kennedy and immediately assured the Soviets that he did not believe they had anything to do with the killing.

9. The Soviets had learned of the plans formulated by the JCS to create a reason for military intervention in Cuba in 1962-63. They believed then, and still believe, that the killing of Kennedy was done partially to create a casus belli insofar as the Soviet Union itself was concerned.

10. Their information indicated that while Kennedy had not permitted these provocations to influence his policy, such could not be said for Johnson. He was viewed as an untried individual and best reassured.

11. One of the strongest supporters of the Soviet point of view was FBI Director Hoover.

12. Because of the involvement of his agency with Oswald, it was in Hoover’s best interests to absolve the Soviets of any complicity and maintain the accepted fiction of Oswald as a deranged person working without assistance of any kind and certainly without any connection to any U.S. agency.

13. It has been alleged that Oswald had also worked for the CIA. This has not been proven although it should be noted that Oswald was in direct contact with CIA agents, associated with the U.S. Embassy in Moscow, while in Russia and had been debriefed by that agency after his return from Russia.

14. Oswald also was intimately connected with de Mohrenschildt who was certainly known to be a CIA operative. Oswald’s connections with this man were such as to guarantee that the CIA was aware of Oswald’s movements throughout his residence in the Dallas area.

15. When Oswald secured employment at the Texas Book Depository, de Mohrenschildt, according to an FBI report, reported this to the CIA.

16. The existence and location of Oswald’s mail order Mannlicher-Carcano rifle in the garage of his wife’s friend, Ruth Paine, was also known to de Mohrenschildt at least one week prior to the assassination.

17. The background and development of the Presidential trip as hereinafter set forth is in parallel with the Soviet report.

18. The Dallas trip had been in train since late July of 1963. Texas was considered to be a key state in the upcoming 1964 Presidential elections. It was the disqualification of over 100,000 Texas votes, in conjunction with the known fraudulent voting in Chicago in 1960 that gave President Kennedy and his associates a slim margin of victory.

19. The actual route of Kennedy’s drive through downtown Dallas was made known to the local press on Tuesday, November 19. The sharp right turn from Main St. onto Houston and then the equally sharp left turn onto Elm was the only way to get to the on ramp to the Stemmons Freeway. A traffic divider on Main St. precluded the motorcade from taking the direct route, from Main St. across Houston and thence right to the Stemmons Freeway exit.

20. Just after the President’s car passed the Texas Book Depository, a number of shots were fired. There were a total of three shots fired at the President. The first shot came from the right front, hitting him in the neck. This projectile did not exit the body. The immediate reaction by the President was to clutch at his neck and say, “I have been hit!” He was unable to move himself into any kind of a defensive posture because he was wearing a restrictive body brace.

21. The second shot came from above and behind the Presidential car, the bullet striking Texas Governor Connally in the upper right shoulder, passing through his chest and exiting sharply downwards into his left thigh.

22. The third, and fatal shot, was also fired at the President from the right front and from a position slightly above the car. This bullet, which was fired from a .223 weapon, struck the President above the right ear, passed through the right rear quadrant of his head and exited towards the left. Pieces of the President’s skull and a large quantity of brain matter was blasted out and to the left of the car. Much of this matter struck a Dallas police motorcycle outrider positioned to the left rear of the Presidential car.

23. Photographic evidence indicates that the driver, SA Greer, slowed down the vehicle when shots were heard, in direct contravention of standing Secret Service regulations.

24. Reports that the initial hit on the President came from above and behind are false and misleading. Given the position of the vehicle at the time of impact and the altitude of the alleged shooter, a bullet striking the back of the President’s neck would have exited sharply downward as did the projectile fired at Governor Connally purportedly from the same shooter located in the same area of the sixth floor of the Texas Book Depository.

25. The projectile that killed the President was filled with mercury. When such a projectile enters a body, the sudden decrease in velocity causes the mercury to literally explode the shell. This type of projectile is designed to practically guarantee the death of the target and is a method in extensive use by European assassination teams.

26. The disappearance of Kennedy’s brain and related post mortem material from the U.S. National Archives was motivated by an official desire not to permit further testing which would certainly show the presence of mercury in the brain matter.

27. Official statements that the fatal shot was fired from above and behind are totally incorrect and intended to mislead. Such a shot would have blasted the brain and blood matter forward and not to the left rear. Also, photographic evidence indicates that after the fatal shot, the President was hurled towards his left, against his wife who was seated to his immediate left.

28. The so-called “magic bullet” theory, i.e., a relatively pristine, fired, Western Cartridge 6.5 Mannlicher-Carcano projectile produced in evidence, is obviously an official attempt to justify its own thesis. This theory, that a projectile from above and behind struck the President in the upper back, swung up, exited his throat, gained altitude and then angled downwards through the body of Governor Connally, striking bone and passing through muscle mass and emerging in almost undamaged condition is a complete impossibility. The bullet in question was obtained by firing the alleged assassination weapon into a container of water.

29. Three other such projectiles were recovered in similar undamaged condition. One of these was produced for official inspection and was claimed to have been found on Governor Connally’s stretcher at Parkland Hospital. As a goodly portion of the projectile was still in the Governor’s body (where much of it remained until his death some years later), this piece of purported evidence should be considered as nothing more than an official “plant.”

30. Soviet commentary on Oswald is basically verified from both KGB and CIA sources. Oswald, however, was not being run by the ONI (note here that the USMC is under the control of the USN and that ONI would be the appropriate agency of initial contact) but instead by the CIA. Their personnel files indicate that Oswald was initially recruited by ONI for possible penetration of the very pervasive Japanese communist intelligence organization. Atsugi base was a very important target for these spies.

31. Because of a shift in their policy, the CIA found it expedient to exploit their U2 surveillance of the Soviet Union as a political rather than an intelligence operation.

32. The Eisenhower administration’s interest in the possibility of achieving a rapprochement with the Soviet Government created a situation that might have proven disastrous to the CIA continued functions.

33. Internal CIA documents show very clearly that as their very existence was dependent on a continuation of the Cold War, any diminution of East-West hostility could easily lead to their down-sizing and, more important, to their loss of influence over the office of the President and also of U.S. foreign policy.

34. It was proposed, according to top level CIA reports, to somehow use their own U2 flights to create an increase in tension that could lead to a frustration of any detente that might result from a lessening of international tensions.

35. It was initially thought that certain compromising documents could be prepared, sent to the CIA base at Atsugi, Japan, and then somehow leaked to the aggressive Japanese communists. However, it was subsequently decided that there was a strong possibility that the documents might not be forwarded to Soviet Russia and kept in Japan for use in the anti-West/anti-war domestic campaigns.

36. CIA personnel stationed at Atsugi conceived a plan to then arrange for select documents to be given directly to the Soviets via an American defector. It was at this point that Oswald’s name was brought up by an ONI man. A CIA evaluation of Oswald convinced them that he would be the perfect defector. Psychological profiles of Oswald convinced them that he was clever, pro-Marxist, a person of low self-esteem as manifested in his chronic anti-social attitudes coupled with homosexual behavior.

37. As Oswald had developed a strong friendship with his ONI control, it was decided to allow him to think that he was working for the U.S. Navy rather than the CIA. (Note: This has always been a hallmark of CIA clandestine operations. Source agents are always considered expendable by that agency and their record of abandonment of these non-CIA agents if felt necessary is well-known to the intelligence community.)

38. Oswald was told that he was performing a “special, vitally important” mission for the ONI and would be given a very good paying official position when he “successfully returned” from the Soviet Union. CIA and ONI reports indicate that he was never expected to return to the United States after he had fulfilled his function of passing the desired documentation to the Soviet intelligence community.

39. The subsequent interception and shooting down by the Soviets of a U2 piloted by CIA agent Gary F. Powers using the leaked CIA material was sufficient to wreck the projected Eisenhower/Khrushchev meetings and harden the Soviet leader’s attitude towards the West.

40. It should be noted that the Powers U2 was equipped with a delayed action self-destruct device, designed to be activated by the pilot upon bailing out. This device was intended to destroy any classified surveillance material on the aircraft. In the Powers aircraft, the device was later disclosed to have been altered to explode the moment the pilot activated it. This would have resulted in the destruction of both the pilot and his aircraft.

41. After his return to the United States, Oswald was a marked man. He was a potential danger to the CIA, whose unredacted personnel reports indicate that Oswald was considered to be unstable, hostile, intelligent and very frustrated. He was, in short, a loose cannon.

42. While resident in Dallas, Oswald became acquainted with George S. DeMohrenschildt, a CIA operative. DeMohrenschildt, a Balt, had family connections both in Poland and Russia, had worked for the German Ausland Abwehr and later the SD during the Second World War. He “befriended” Oswald and eventually an intimate physical relationship developed between the two men. This infuriated Marina Oswald and their already strained relationship grew even worse. She had come to America expecting great financial rewards and instead found poverty, two children and a sexually cold husband.

43. It was DeMohrenschildt’s responsibility to watch Oswald, to establish a strong inter-personal relationship with him and to learn what information, if any, Oswald might possess that could damage the CIA if it became known.

44. The CIAs subsequent use of Oswald as a pawn in the assassination was a direct result of this concern.

45. The connections of Angleton, Chief of Counter Intelligence for the CIA with elements of the mob are well known in intelligence circles. Angleton worked closely with the Sicilian and Naples mobs in 1944 onwards as part of his duties for the OSS.

46. The connections of Robert Crowley, another senior CIA official, with elements of the Chicago mob are also well known in intelligence circles.

47. The attempts of the CIA and the JCS to remove Castro by assassination are also part of the official record. These assassination plots, called RIFLE show the connections between the CIA and the Chicago branch of the Mafia.

48. This Mafia organization was paid nearly a quarter million dollars to effect the killing of Castro but apparently kept the money and did nothing.

49. Subsequent to the assassination, the CIA put out the cover story that Castro had planned the act in retaliation for the attempts on his life. This is not substantiated either from US or Soviet sources.

50. While the American Mafia had numerous reasons for wishing the removal of the President and, especially, his brother the Attorney General, it does not appear that they were participants in the assassination.

51. It is evident that contact was made between the Chicago Mafia and its counterpart in Sicily in an effort to locate putative assassins.

52. French intelligence sources have indicated that a recruitment was made among members of the Corsican Mafia in Marseilles in mid-1963.

53. French intelligence sources have also indicated that they informed U.S. authorities in the American Embassy on two occasions about the recruitment of French underworld operatives for a political assassination in the United States.

54. It is not known if these reports were accepted at the Embassy or passed to Washington.

55. In the event, the Corsicans were sent to Canada where they blended in more easily with the French-speaking Quebec population.

56. Although the Chicago Mafia did not supply the actual assassins, they did provide the services of one of their lesser members, Jack “Ruby” Rubinstein, a small-time mob enforcer, in the event that Oswald was taken alive.

57. The use of Jack Ruby to kill Oswald has been explained by the official reports as an aberrant act on the part of an emotional man under the influence of drugs. The Warren Commission carefully overlooked Ruby’s well-known ties to the Chicago mob as well as his connections with mob elements in Cuba.

58. Ruby’s early Chicago connections with the mob are certainly well documented in Chicago police files. This material was not used nor referred to in the Warren Report.

59. Ruby’s close connection with many members of the Dallas police infrastructure coupled with a very strong motivation to remove Oswald prior to any appointment of an attorney to represent him or any possible revelations Oswald might make about his probably knowledge of the actual assassins made Ruby an excellent agent of choice. If Oswald had gained the relative security of the County Jail and lawyers has been appointed for him, it would have proven much more difficult to remove him.

60. The Warren Commission was most particularly alarmed by attempts on the part of New York attorney Mark Lane, to present a defense for the dead Oswald before the Commission. Lane was refused this request. A written comment by Chief Justice Earl Warren to CIA Director Allan Dulles was that “people like Lane should never be permitted to air their radical views…at least not before this Commission…”

61. Ruby had been advised by his Chicago mob connections, as well as by others involved in the assassination, that his killing of Oswald would “make him a great hero” in the eyes of the American public and that he “could never be tried or convicted” in any American court of law.

62. Ruby, who had personal identity problems, accepted and strongly embraced this concept and was shocked to find that he was to be tried on a capital charge. Never very stable, Ruby began to disintegrate while in custody and mixed fact and fiction in a way as to convince possible assassins that he was not only incompetent but would not reveal his small knowledge of the motives behind the removal of Oswald.

63. In the presence of Chief Justice Warren, Ruby strongly intimated that he had additional information to disclose and wanted to go to the safety of Washington but Warren abruptly declared that he was not interested in hearing any of it.

64. A polygraph given to Ruby concerning his denial of knowing Oswald and only attempting to kill him as a last minute impulse proved to be completely unsatisfactory and could not be used to support the Commission’s thesis.

65. During his final illness, while in Parkland Hospital, Ruby was under heavy sedation and kept well supervised to prevent any death bed confessions or inopportune chance remarks to hospital attendants. An unconfirmed report from a usually reliable source states that Ruby was given an injection of air with a syringe which produced an embolism that killed him. The official cause of Ruby’s death was a blood clot.

66. It was later alleged that Ruby had metastated cancer of the brain and lungs which somehow had escaped any detection during his incarceration in Dallas. It was further alleged that this terminal cancer situation had existed for over a year without manifesting any serious symptoms to the Dallas medical authorities. This is viewed by non-governmental oncologists as highly unbelievable and it appears that Ruby’s fatal blood clot was the result of outside assistance.

67. Following the assassination, a number of persons died under what can only be termed mysterious circumstances. Also, the FBI seized a number of films and pictures taken by witnesses that were considered to be too sensitive to leave in private hands.

68. Statements by Dallas law enforcement personnel as well as similar statements by witnesses that there had been “several” men in the area of the railroad yard adjacent to the freeway and that these men had “Secret Service” identification created considerable confusion.

69. According to Secret Service records, the only Secret Service agents at the scene were in the motorcade itself and they had no agents in the railroad yard.

70. Witnesses and witness statements introduced before the Warren Commission were carefully vetted prior to introduction as evidence. The home movie of the assault was turned over to the FBI and a spliced version of it was released to the public. This doctored version showed Kennedy reacting in a way that was diametrically opposed to his actual reactions.

71. The concern of Soviet intelligence and government agencies about any possible connection between defector Oswald and themselves is entirely understandable. It was never seriously believed by any competent agency in the United States that the Soviet Union had any part in the assassination of Kennedy and also known that Oswald was a government agent, working for various agencies in his lifetime.

72. Because of the emotional attitudes in official Washington and indeed, throughout the entire nation immediately following the assassination, there was created a potentially dangerous international situation for the Soviets. Oswald was an identified defector with Marxist leanings. He was also believed to be a pro-Castro activist . That both his Marxist attitudes and his sympathies and actions on behalf of the Cuban dictator were simulations was not known to the Warren Commission at the time of their activities.

73. To bolster their eager efforts to convince the American authorities that their government had nothing to do with the assassination, men like Nosenko were utilized to further support this contention. It is not known whether Nosenko was acting on orders or whether he was permitted access to created documentation and given other deliberate disinformation by the KGB and allowed to defect. A great deal of internal concern was expressed upon the Nosenko’s purported defection by Soviet officials but this is viewed at merely an attempt, and a successful one, to lend substance to his importance.

74. James Angleton’s attitude towards Nosenko is a commentary on the duality of his nature. On one hand, Angleton was performing as Chief of Counter Intelligence and openly showed his zeal in searching for infiltrators and “moles” inside his agency while on the other hand, Angleton had very specific personal knowledge that the Soviet Union had nothing to do with the Kennedy assassination.

75.The senior Kennedy, it is known, was heavily involved with rumrunning during the Prohibition era and had extensive mob connections. He had been closely associated with Al Capone, mob boss in Chicago and had a falling out with him over an allegedly hijacked liquor shipment. Capone, Chicago police records indicate, had threatened Kennedy’s life over this and Kennedy had to pay off the mob to nullify a murder contract.” “

76.Anti-Castro Cuban militants viewed Kennedy’s abandonment of their cause with great anger and many members of these CIA-trained and led groups made calls for revenge on the President for his abandonment of their cause.” “

77.Soviet attempts to gain a strategic foothold in close proximity to the United States and certainly well within missile range, was intolerable and had to be countered with equal force. At that time, the threat of major war was not only imminent but anticipated. In retrospect, all out nuclear warfare between the United States and the Soviet Union was only barely averted and only at the last minute.

78.The President’s highly unorthodox form of personal diplomacy vis a vis the Soviets created far more problems that it ever solved. When it came to light, both the DOS and the CIA were extremely concerned that sensitive intelligence matters might have been inadvertently passed to the Soviets.

79.Reports from the CIA concerning Oswald’s September/October visit to Mexico City are totally unreliable and were rejected by the FBI as being ‘in serious error.’ The reasons for Oswald’s visit to Mexico are completely obscure at this writing but the individual allegedly photographed by CIA surveillance in Mexico is to a certainty not Lee Oswald. As the CIA had pictures of the real Oswald, their reasons for producing such an obvious falsity are not easy to ascertain at this remove.”

80.The hit team was flown away in an aircraft piloted by a CIA contract pilot named David Ferrie from New Orleans. They subsequently vanished without a trace. Rumors of the survival of one of the team are persistent but not proven.

81. A study of the Soviet report indicates very clearly that the Russians have significant and very high level sources within both the Central Intelligence Agency and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Their possession of material relating to certain highly classified American military papers has been referred to the CIC for investigation and action.”

 

 

 

(Note: A facsimile of these documents is in the Appendix)

 

1963

 

MARCH

1 MAR 63

8:30 AM- Noon

Conference with DCI, JJA, RTC.

Implementation of ZIPPER. Pre-

sentation of RFK intercepts to

DCI. Review of investigative

data to date. DCI requests more

data.

2 MAR 63

9:45 AM- 11:15 AM

Presentation by JJA and RTC to

DCI of evidentiary material.

2:20 PM

Request by DCI for interview

with Director/FBI

4 MAR 63

8:15 AM- 10:00 AM

Conference with DCI, JJA

with Director/FBI and DD/FBI

Sullivan.

10:20 AM- 10: 35 AM

Conference with DCI, JJA, RTC

and Sullivan.

7 MAR 63

8:30 PM-12:06 AM

Conference with JJA and Sullivan

8 MAR 63

2:02 PM- 3:45 PM

Conference with JJA, RTC in

re RFK.

4:15 PM- 4:38 PM

Telephone conference JJA with

DCI concerning above meeting

 

12 MAR 63

8:30 AM-9:23 AM

Conference JJA and Sullivan

1:20 PM- 2:10 PM

Lunch conference with JJA and

RTC. Joined by DCI.

13 MAR 63

9:10 AM- 9:30 AM

Telephone conference by DCI

with Walter Jenkins in re VP.

Request for personal interview.

3:30 PM- 3:34 PM

Conference JJA with DCI on

Jenkins request.

14. MAR 63

 

9:45 AM- 10:23 AM

and

3:37 PM – 4:11 PM

Conferences with JJA, Jenkins,

RTC and telephone conference

with WKH on ZIPPER. Views

of VP are discussed. Extreme

caution on part of VP subject

of both conferences. Tentative

acceptance of basic thrust of

ZIPPER. VP to speak with

DCI on 15 MAR.

15 MAR 63

12:35 PM-1:43 PM

Luncheon conference with DCI

Jenkins and A. Fortas, Met. Club.

Present: JJA and RTC. Discussion by

VP’s aides of two conversations with

DIR/FBI Hoover on ZIPPER. AF requests

copies of telephone intercepts.

16 MAR 63

1:08 PM- 1:16 PM

Telephone conference by RTC

with SG in re U/C.

1:24 PM- 2:19 PM

Telephone conference by RTC

with JJA in re SG.

2:45 PM- 3:10 PM

Telephone conversation by JJA

with DCI in re SG.

3:32 PM- 4:50 PM

Telephone conference with WKH

by JJA in re SG.

18 MAR 63

8:44 AM- 9:29 AM

Telephone conference by JJA w SC/

INTERARMCO in re weaponry

and delivery.

3:04 PM-3:30 PM

Telephone conferences with DCI

and RTC in re SC analysis.

9:30 PM- 11: 27 PM

Conference  RTC with WJ and AF.

Copies of RFK reports for VP.

19 MAR 63

11:45 AM

Telephone report by SG to RTC

concerning need for US passports.

20 MAR 63

3:27 PM- 3:29 PM

Telephone conference by RTC

with SG in re passports

Affirmative response.

21 MAR 63

11:55 AM-2:37 PM

Lunch meeting with DCI, RTC and JJA.

Review of telephone taps on RFK.

Report by JJA on Soviet receipts.

25 MAR 63

9:45 AM- 10:17 AM

Telephone conference with Jenkins

in re VP, RTC

28 MAR 63

3:15 PM- 4:25 PM

Conference with DCI and JJA

Coordination of JCS objectives with ZIPPER

4:45 PM-4:48 PM

Telephone conference with Jenkins

concerning VP RTC

4:55 PM-5:01 PM

Telephone conference with DCI on VP RTC

29 MAR 63

2:35PM-3:15 PM

Telephone conference: DCI

with FBI/Sullivan

6:60 PM-9:55 PM

Conference with RTC and WKH

reference logistics of ZIPPER

 

APRIL

 

3 APRIL  63

11:08 PM- 1:21 AM

Telephone conference between JJA

and Amos Minor, Israel l, in re possible

cooperation in ZIPPER

4 APRIL 63

11:31 AM- 1:02PM

Conference with JJA and RTC in re Minor

assistance.

3:35 PM-4:45 PM

Telephone conference RTC and SG, Sicilian

referral.

9 APRIL 63

8:31 AM- 8:45 AM

Telephone conference, JJA with LtCOL Cass,

S’Domingo in re ZIPPER. Agreement for

conference.

9:08 AM- 9:14 AM

Conference with DCI and JJA concerning

Cass meeting and SG progress

11 APRIL 63

1:45 PM- 1:56 PM

Telephone conference with Jenkins

in re VP. Clarification of DCI memo.

2:30 PM-2:46 PM

Telephone conference with Pentagon

in re Cass meeting.

4:36 PM – 5:15 PM

Meeting JJA and DCI on progress for

Zipper. No direct contact between DCI

and Cass.

13 APRIL 63

8:22 PM- 9:07 PM

Telephone conference RTC

and SC in re ZIPPER

14 APRIL 63

9:35 AM- 11:07 AM

Conference with DCI, JJA, WKH

Reference update with WKH. Suggestion

received from Lemnitzer on rep. LtCOL

Cass in S’Domingo.

2:35 PM-3:12 PM

Telephone conference with LtCOL

Cass in re ZIPPER

15 APRIL 63

12:35 AM-2:23 PM

Conference with WKH and SC

concerning weaponry and logistics.

INTERARMCO

5:20 PM- 5:45 PM

Telephone conference with Jenkins

in re VP

18 APRIL 63

1:23 PM- 1:25 PM

Telephone conference with SC

of INTERARMCO

2:01 PM-2:05 PM

Telephone contact with SG in Chicago in re

RTC meeting. RTC

2:25 PM-2:31 PM

Telephone conference with JJA

concerning SG.

2:33 PM- 2:40 PM

Meeting with DCI about Chicago.

RTC, JJA

19 APRIL 63

Telephone conference with ARM in

re LANCER SS protection. JJA

 

23 APRIL 63

Conference with RTC and SG concerning

logistics for ZIPPER. Chicago

24 APRIL 63

Conference with RTC and SG concerning

logistics for ZIPPER. Chicago

3:09 PM- 3:33 PM

Conference with JJA and LtCol Cass in

re ZIPPER

30 APRIL 63

9:31 AM -1:45 AM

Telephone conference with RTC and

Jenkins in re VP. Further clarification

on post-ZIPPER.

2:20 PM- 5:38 PM

Conference DCI and Sullivan  in re

contact with Director/FBI. Supply

RFK transcripts.

 

MAY

 

2 MAY 63

1:00 PM- 2:59 PM

Conference with DCI, JJA, RTC, Sullivan

in re intercepted phone conversations

from Hickory Hill. Also, intercepted

and decoded conversations from Soviet embassy.

4 :09 PM-4:21 PM

Telephone conversation RTC and SG on Marseilles

contacts.

4:30 PM- 5:37 PM

Conference with RTC and JJA concerning SG

referrals. Also Mass. sailboat plan. Rejected.

5 MAY 63

2:02 PM- 4:45 PM

Telephone conference between JJA,

RTC. With reference to progress on

ZIPPER. Subject of discussions:

1. SS Presidential security.

2. Projected Presidential visits,

a. Inside US.

b. Outside US

3. Disinformation in reports to White

House aimed at disrupting channels of

communication.

4. Contact with NSA in re blocking of

calls transmitting information to Soviet

Union

5. Close coordination with JCS concerning

military action against Cuba

6. Ascertaining attitudes of VP in re para 5.

7. Communicating compromising material

on President to Soviet Union….loss of

confidence.

8. Information on planned RFK prosecution of

VP aides. To discredit VP and give motive for

removing from the ticket in ‘64. Give to AF?

 

This entry is the most informative. It is obvious that this log was prepared by various people over the period from March through November. Vice President Lyndon Johnson obviously was brought into the plot through contact with Walter Jenkins and Abe Fortas. Not a bold man, Johnson’s concerns are entirely typical of the man. He had forced himself on the 1960 Democratic ticket against Kennedy’s wishes and throughout the thousand days of the Kennedy presidency, Johnson was treated with contempt by Kennedy’s people. Their favorite epithet was ‘Uncle Cornpone’ and it became common knowledge that Kennedy was planning to replace Johnson on the 1964 ticket. To accomplish this, Bobby Kennedy was preparing criminal charges against Bobby Baker, one of Johnson’s top aides. Johnson was aware that such charges would give the Kennedy faction the ability to force him off the ticket. Since Vice Presidents traditionally have run for the Presidency at the expiration of the mandatory two term limit, any hope of gaining the White House would have been dashed. Johnson, therefore, became a willing if very timid participant in the ZIPPER project.

 

6 MAY 63

9:34 AM- 10:21 AM

Conference JJA with DCI in re 5 May

conference. Approval noted.

11:10 AM-3:17 PM

Telephone conferences by JJA

& RTC with:

a. WJ in re VP

b. JCS in re ZIPPER and plans

c. SG in re team progress

d. SC in re logistics

 

The inclusion of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is a thread that runs throughout the entire development of ZIPPER. Giancana obviously reported on his efforts to line up a foreign team and Sam Cummings, who was in charge of the weapons, reported on his task.

 

10 MAY 63

Lunch conference

DCI, Sullivan, JJA, RTC, WKH

Discussion of progress of ZIPPER.

Decision to launch disinformation

program in re Soviets.

Decision to expand sources to

include source, AF1

Decision for dual payments to

UC and to SG

 

AF1 refers to Air Force One but any attempt to destroy the President’s aircraft was eventually abandoned due to extraordinary security in place. Both Giancana and the Unione Corse were to be paid for their services, the former to ensure his continued cooperation.

 

14 MAY 63

4:45 PM

Report by SC in re weaponry

21 MAY 63

3:20 PM- 4:11 PM

Conference DCI, RTC

in re NSA communications

surveillance

 

The National  Security Agency or NSA is, and was in 1963, positioned to monitor all foreign and domestic telephone, and radio traffic. Subsequently, they have added the ability to intercept Internet and fax messages.

 

24 MAY 63

2:25 PM

Contact with source on AF1

 

It was at this point that any action involving the President’s aircraft was abandoned.

3:10 PM

Conference DCI, JJA on subject

payment for AF1 source

25 MAY 63

2:10 PM-4:43 PM

Conference, UClub, RTC, JJA, WKH

with rep, Chair/JCS in re ZIPPER.

Coordination of ZIPPER w. MARLINSTRIKE

The meaning of  MARLINSPIKE is not known at this writing but appears to be a plan designed to draw the United States into war with Cuba, a strong desire of the JCS and its Chief, General Lyman Lemnitzer.

 

27 MAY 63

9:45 AM- 12:00 PM

&

2:30 PM- 5:52 PM

Conference JJA, RTC in re ZIPPER

28 MAY 63

8:32 AM-9:01 AM

Telephone conference JJA with

LtCOL Cass in re ZIPPER

11:34 AM- 12:30 PM

Conference JJA, DCI in

re NSA transcripts

31 MAY 63

1:35 PM-2:50 PM

Conference JJA, AF in re VP

Discussion of VP attitudes in re

MARLINSTRIKE, ZIPPER

3:00 PM-3:21 PM

Telephone conference JJA.

JCS in re AF conference.

3:30 PM-3:34 PM

Telephone conference JJA

DCI in re AF & JCS

 

JUNE

 

3 JUNE 63

2:20 PM- 3:05 PM

Conference with DD Carter

and GEN Blake, DIR/NSA

concerning ZIPPER.

1. NSA SIGINT surveillance

of Cuba, Mexico and Dominican

Republic.

2. NSA domestic surveillance,

3. Confirming reports on RFK

conversations.

4. TASS communications.

5. Soviet internal communications

6. White House communications

 

General Marshal Carter, USA was a senior official in the CIA and later went on to head the NSA.

 

4 JUNE 63

Lunch conference, DD/MC,

JJA, RTC in reference Blake

position.

Lieutenant General Gordon Blake, USAF, was Director of the NSA from July 1962 through May, 1965. He was replaced by General Marshal Carter.

 

6 JUNE 63

7:30 PM- 9:20 PM

Conference, JJA, RTC in

re NSA intercepts.

11 JUNE 63

9:55 AM-10:02 AM

Telephone conference with

AF in re VP. Anxiety

12 JUNE 63

12:30 PM-12:45 PM

Telephone conference with

LtCOL Cass, S’Domingo

As U.S. Military Attaché to the Dominican Republic, Lt. Colonel Cass had been involved with the CIA assassination of Trujillo and had handled the weapons used in the killing,  which had arrived in the diplomatic pouch.

4:11 PM- 4:34 PM

Telephone conference with

JJA & A. Manor in re UC team.

5:30 PM- 6:45 PM

Telephone conference with

JJA & AF in re VP. More

reassurances needed.

True to form, Lyndon Johnson is still trying to have his cake and eat it as well.

19 JUNE 63

11:35 AM- 12:40 PM

Telephone conference, DD/MC

with D/NSA Blake concerning

NSA intercepts

1:45 PM-1:50 PM

Telephone conference, DD/MC

with RTC concerning SG.

24 JUNE 63

Report from SC in re weapons.

5:39 PM-5:51 PM

Telephone conference, DCI

and JJA, RTC and WKH

25 JUNE 63

Receipt of NSA report

3:09 PM- 3:30 PM

Telephone conference, WKH

with LtCOL Cass, S’Domingo

26 JUNE 63

9:30 AM- 9:54 AM

Telephone conference. AF

to RFK in re VP. Agreement

in general.

At this point in time, Lyndon Johnson had decided to join the Presidential poker game.

10:07 AM- 10:09 AM

Telephone conference RTC

with DCI. in re AF call

11:30 AM-11:45 AM

Telephone conference RTC

with Lemnitzer aide in re

ZIPPER

 

JULY

 

3 JULY 63

Arrival of B. Bauman from

Toronto.

 

Binjamin Bauman, a Shin Bet operative, had been a member of the terrorist Stern Gang and was one of the men who planted a huge bomb in the King David Hotel in Jerusalem in 1946. A large number of British officers and civilians were killed in the subsequent blast. Bauman was recruited by Angleton through his friend, Amos Manor, head of the Shin Bet, ,internal security organ of the Israeli government.

 

4 JULY 63

Receipt of courier reports

NSA.

7:39 PM- 11:45 PM

Personal interview with JJA, RTC

& MC with Bauman

5 JULY 63

Evaluation of AF1 material by

JJA, WKH, RTC.

2:33 PM-3:15 PM

Conference with DCI, JJA on

AF1 findings. Negative

11 JULY 63

Review by JJA on RFK and

White House telephone

transcripts.

 

It is obvious that both James Angleton and NSA were involved in electronic surveillance of the Attorney General and in all probability, the White House as well.

 

11:00 AM- 12:15 PM

Conference with JJA, MC and

RTC in re intercepts

16 JULY 63

10:45 AM- 11:14 AM

Telephone conference with

MC and Blake in re NSA

intercepts.

1:45 PM- 5:15 PM

Conference with BB, JJA

MC in re ZIPPER and

UC team.

 

17 JULY 63

6:30 PM-11:00 PM

Conference with JJA

& BB

9:45 PM- 10:15PM

Telephone conference JJA &

BB with SC in re weapons

19 JULY 63

7:01 PM-11:43 PM

Conference with DCI, AWD, MC,

JJA, RTC in re ZIPPER. Agreement

in principle on all issues.

AWD are the initials of Allen Welsh Dulles, former longtime head of the CIA who had been fired by Kennedy over the CIA failures in the Bay of Pigs fiasco.

31 JULY 63

9:40 AM-10:20 AM

Telephone conference with CHAIR/JCS

in re AWD, VP overviews.

11:30 AM-1:29 PM

Conference, MC, JJA, RTC in re

ZIPPER. Transfer operation to

WKH

 

It is at this point that the actual execution of ZIPPER was turned over to William King Harvey. All future records reflect a series of progress reports by Harvey on a weekly basis to his superiors.

 

AUGUST

 

9 AUGUST 63

1:50 PM-2:10 PM

Conference, WKH, JJA

Progress Report

16 AUGUST 63

7:50 PM-11:01 PM

Conference, WKH, JJA

Progress Report

23 AUGUST 63

8:15 PM-10:19 PM

Conference, WKH, JJA

RTC

Progress Report

30 AUGUST 63

7:50 PM- 8:45 PM

Conference, WKH, JJA

Progress Report

 

SEPTEMBER

 

6 SEPT 63

3:19PM-5:12 PM

Conference, WKH, MC, JJA

Progress Report

12 SEPT 63

 

2:45 PM- 3:18 PM

Conference, WKH, JJA

Progress Report

20 SEPT 63

10:20 PM- 1:45 AM

Conference, WKH, RTC

MC

Progress Report

27 SEPT 63

9:30 AM-10:17 AM

Conference, WKH,  DCI,MC,

JJA, RTC

Progress Report

 

OCTOBER

 

18 OCT 63

7:45 PM- 11:30 PM

Conference, WKH, JJA

Progress Report

Dallas

 

This is the only reference in this document to Dallas, Texas. On the 17th of October, Lee  Harvey Oswald began his employment at the Texas Book Depository.

 

24 OCT 63

11:20 AM- 11:22 AM

Telephone conference, SG,

JJA in re UC arrival Montreal

 

At this point, members of the Corsican assassination team arrived in Quebec, Canada.

 

NOVEMBER

 

1 NOV 63

8:40 PM-12: PM

Conference WKH, WTC

Progress Report

14 NOV 63

1:45 PM-1:56 PM

Telephone conference, WKH

MC. in re UC/Dallas

The Unione Corse team was now in Dallas and preparing for their task when President Kennedy made his official visit on November 22.

 

Abbreviations used in the ZIPPER Document

 

DCI
Director of Central Intelligence, John McCone
DD/FBI
Deputy Director of Federal Bureau of Investigation,    William Sullivan
USMC
United States Marine Corps
JCS
Joint Chiefs of Staff of U.S. Armed Forces
SIGINT
Signals Intelligence
AG
Attorney General, Robert F. Kennedy
OAS
Organisation de l’armée secrète, Secret Army Organization of former French officers who did not recognize the independence of Algeria
JJA
James Jesus Angleton, CIA Counterintelligence
RTC
Robert Trumbull Crowley, CIA Clandestine Operations
VP
Vice President, Lyndon B. Johnson
WKH
William King Harvey, senior official of the CIA
Met.Club
Metropolitan Club, Washington, D.C.
AF
Abe Fortas, advisor  to Lyndon B. Johnson
SG
Sam Giancana, Chicago Mafia chief
U/C
Unione Corse, Corsican Mafia
SC
Sam Cummings, INTERARMCO (CIA proprietary)
ARM
unidentified
Lancer SS
Code name for Secret Service for J. F. Kennedy travels
NSA
National Security Agency
WJ
Walter Jenkins, advisor to Lyndon B. Johnson
AF1
Air Force One (President’s official aircraft)
UClub
University Club, Washington, D.C.
MC
Marshal Carter, senior officer of CIA, later with  NSA
D/NSA
Director NSA, Gordon Blake
BB
Binjamin Baumann, Shin Beth (Israel)
AWD
Allen Welsh Dulles, former DCI

[1]             The Warren Commission Report, pb. edition, New York: St. Martin’s Press [no year, ISBN 0-312-08257-6]; hereinafter WCR.
[2]             David S. Lifton, Best Evidence: Disguise and Deception in the Assassination of John F. Kennedy, New York: Carroll & Graf, 1980.
[3]             Thomas C. Reeves, A Question of Character: A Life of John F. Kennedy, New York: Macmillan, 1991.
[4]             Peter Dale Scott, Deep Politics and the Death of JFK, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.
[5]             Seymour Hersh, The Dark Side of Camelot, New York: Brown, 1998 (pb. edition).
[6]                      Gerald Posner, Case Closed, New York: Doubleday, 1993.
[7]             Washington Post, October 10, 2000, p. B6; see the WP online archive at www.washingtonpost.com; doc-ref: http://nl11.newsbank.com/nl- search/we/Archives?p_action= doc&p_docid=0EB2C4671708A4E7& p_docnum=1.
[8]             Soviet Secret Police under the State Security Committee, successor to the NKVD and predecessor to the KGB; Otto Heilbrunn, The Soviet Secret Services, New York: Praeger, 1956, pp. 127, 134.
[9]             See Appendix.
[10]            Terry Gander and Peter Chamberlain, Weapons of the Third Reich, Doubleday: New York, 1979.
[11]            Robert J. Groden and Harrison E. Livingstone, High Treason, New York: Conservatory Press, 1989, p. 58. Carl Oglesby, Who Killed JFK? Berkeley: Odonian Press, 1992, pp. 26f.
[12]            The excerpts from the Warren Commission Report are designed to reflect the paragraphs in the Soviet Intelligence Study, hence are out of sequence on a number of occasions, but not out of context.
[13]            House Select Committee on Assassinations, HSCA 567, vol. 3, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1976.
[14]            Memo of J. Edgar Hoover to Staff, 29 November 1963, Crowley Papers. See Appendix.
[15]            G. Posner, op. cit. (note 6), p. 270n.
[16]            See footnote 10.
[17]            Hoover letter, op. cit. (note 14), p. 3.
[18]            G. Posner, op. cit. (note 6), p. 54n.
[19]            Ibid., Plate iii.
[20]            See footnote 8.
[21]            Hoover letter, note (14), p. 4.
[22]            Hoover wrote several documents for President Johnson. See especially the Hoover Memorandum, note 14.
[23]            Office of Naval Intelligence, the Navy’s secret service.
[24]            The bitter animosity between the Attorney General and the Director of the FBI has been well covered in a number of works. See William Sullivan, The Bureau: My Thirty Years in Hoover’s FBI, New York: Norton, 1979.
[25]            For a study of the criminal activities of Joseph P. Kennedy, as they are mentioned hereafter, see S. Hersh, op. cit. (note 5), pp. 44-60.
[26]            Hoover letter, op. cit. (note 14), pp. 2f.
[27]            G. Posner, op. cit. (note 6), dust jacket comments.
[28]            S. Hersh, op. cit. (note 5), p. 153.
[29]            Ibid., pp. 131-154.
[30]            See footnote 25.
[31]            Ibid., pp. 153f.
[32]            S. Hersh, op. cit. (note 5), pp. 268-293; Anthony Summers, Conspiracy New York: McGraw-Hill, 1980, pp. 264-272; Peter Grose, Gentleman Spy: The Life of Allan Dulles, Amherst: The University of Massachusetts Press, 1994, pp. 493-518.
[33]            There are many excellent studies of the Cuban Missile Crisis. See especially P. Grose, op. cit. (note 32), S. Hersh, op. cit. (note 5).
[34]            See footnote 33.
[35]            R. Groden, H. Livingstone, op. cit. (note 11), pp. 248f.; A. Summers, op. cit. (note 32), pp. 260f.
[36]            S. Hersh, op. cit. (note 5), pp. 381f.
[37]            There has been a massive amount of material published on the ruthless activities of the CIA. See the Bibliography for works cited. Specific references may be found in: Victor Marchetti and John Marks, The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence, New York: Dell, 1983, John Nutter, The CIA’s Black Ops: Covert Action, Foreign Policy, and Democracy, Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 2000.
[38]            Alexander Cockburn, Jeffrey St. Clair, Whiteout: The CIA, Drugs, and the Press, London; New York: Verso, 1998, pp. 255-275.
[39]            Though formally created in 1947, the CIA started operating in 1948; see bibliography for references to the early days of the CIA.
[40]            A. Cockburn, J. St. Clair, op. cit. (note 38), pp. 29-62.
[41]            See Appendix for official organizational chart, taken from V. Marchetti, J. Marks, op. cit. (note 37), pp. 60f.
[42]            According to personal conversations with R. T. Crowley, these terms were used extensively by members of the CIA.
[43]            David G. Brown, The Last Log of the Titanic, Camden, Me.: International Marine/McGraw-Hill, 2001, pp. 125-136.
[44]            Michael Beschloss, Kennedy and Roosevelt, New York: W. W. Norton, 1980, contains an excellent accounting of the relationship between FDR and his Ambassador to England.
[45]            M. Beschloss, op. cit. (note 44), pp. 243-254.
[46]            Ibid., and also S. Hersh, op. cit. (note 5), pp. 62-73.
[47]            Gregory Douglas, Gestapo Chief, San Jose: Bender, 1995, pp. 64f.; David McCullough, Truman, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992, p. 324.
[48]            T. C. Reeves, op. cit. (note 3), pp. 414 et seq..; S. Hersh, op. cit. (note 5), pp. 29f. et seq.
[49]            JFK’s sexual activities have been extensively covered, see S. Hersh, op. cit. (note 5) and T. C. Reeves, op. cit. (note 3).
[50]            See footnote 49.
[51]            There is an excellent new book on this subject. Thomas Fleming, The New Dealers’ War, Basic Books, New York, 2001.
[52]            D. McCullough, op. cit. (note 47), passim.
[53]            See footnote 39.
[54]            This contention can be found on the CIA’s web site, www.CIA.gov.
[55]            An excellent, if often anecdotal, accounting of the misuse by the CIA of its funding and other pertinent material, can be found in the two volume work, Müller Journals: The Washington Years, Vol. 1: 1948-1950, by G. Douglas, San Jose: Bender, 1999 The Müller in question had once been the head of the German Gestapo who was recruited by the CIA after the war and worked in Washington from 1948 onwards under the control of Robert Crowley. For additional information on the CIA’s use of Heinrich Müller, see Joseph Trento, The Secret History of the CIA, New York: Random House, 2001, p. 29 and notes. The former Gestapo chief worked with and was under the control of Robert Crowley, and this information can be found not only in the Douglas works but also in the Crowley Papers as noted by Trento.
[56]            Cf. G. Douglas, ibid., Vol. 1, pp. 12, 18, 22n, 232.
[57]            Christopher Simpson, Blowback, New York: Weidenfeld & Nicholson, 1988, pp. 60f.
[58]            An interesting work on the Bay of Pigs was prepared by some of its leading participants. Haynes Johnson et al., The Bay of Pigs, New York: W. W. Norton, 1964.
[59]            Gehlen initially worked for the United States Army until his group was given over to the CIA in 1948. It was run out of Pullach, a Munich suburb, by Colonel James Critchfield, an Army officer who worked for the CIA at that time. The CIA controlled Gehlen until 1955-56, when his organization was taken over by the West German Government as their equivalent of the CIA, the Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND).
[60]            See Appendix.
[61]            Background information about the Hungarian revolt can be found in C. Simpson, op. cit. (note 57), pp. 254ff.
[62]            It has tentatively been approved by Eisenhower and was under the supervision of his Vice President, Richard M. Nixon, prior to Kennedy’s assumption of office in January of 1960; cf. P. Grose, op. cit. (note 32), p. 519; see also V. Marchetti, J. Marks, op. cit. (note 37), pp. 260-265; H. Johnson, op. cit. (note 58).
[63]            James Bamford, Body of Secrets, New York: Doubleday, 2001, pp. 82-91. Also see JCS, Top Secret/Special Handling/Noforn. Appendix to Enclosure A—“Pretexts to Justify US Military Intervention in Cuba, March 12, 1962”, Assassinations Records Review Board.
[64]            V. Marchetti, J. Marks, op. cit. (note 37), p. 108; also H. Johnson, op. cit. (note 58).
[65]            R. Groden, H. Livingstone, op. cit. (note 11), p. 355. See also the Soviet Intelligence Study, Driscoll Report, p. 5, as reproduced on p. 76.
[66]            Bay of Pigs and the Dulles firing can be found in S. Hersh, op. cit. (note 5), pp. 202-221, P. Grose, op. cit. (note 32), 522-539.
[67]            Personal conversation with R. T. Crowley.
[68]            S. Hersh, op. cit. (note 5), pp. 185f., P. Grose, op. cit. (note 32), pp. 493f.
[69]            Personal conversation with R. T. Crowley.
[70]            S. Hersh, op. cit. (note 5), pp. 380-383.
[71]            Driscoll Report, pp. 9, 18, as reproduced on p. 84, and S. Hersh, op. cit. (note 5), pp. 248ff., 254f., 261f.
[72]            S. Hersh, op. cit. (note 5), pp. 346-350 et seq.
[73]            James Jesus Angleton was an inherently suspicious person, bordering on paranoia. Driscoll Report, p. 18, no. 74 (see p. 54), and Tom Mangold, Cold Warrior: James Jesus Angleton: The CIA’s Master Spy Hunter, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1991.
[74]            S. Hersh, op. cit. (note 5), pp. 10f. et seq.; T. C. Reeves, op. cit. (note 3), pp. 240ff., Nina Burleigh, A Very Private Woman, New York: Bantam Books, 1998, pp. 194ff.
[75]            These professional and pornographic pictures, 8½”×11″, black and white and color, were prepared for the President by the Mickelson Gallery in Washington (S. Hersh, op. cit. (note 5), p. 11). These are from the Crowley Papers but are not included in the present work. Kennedy gave these very explicit pictures to various women who had participated in his group sex acts.
[76]            Later, the Director of the National Security Agency, Lieutenant General Gordon Blake, helped the CIA to gather more information on Kennedy’s activities: ZIPPER Document, 5, 21, 28 May (11:34am), 3, 4, 6, 19 June (11:35am), 25 June, 4, 11, 16 July (10:45am).
[77]            See ZIPPER Document, no. 4.
[78]            Patrice Lumumba, Rafael Trujillo, Salvatore Allende Goosens of Chile, President Diem of South Vietnam, plus many more, were all removed as the result of CIA orders. The leadership in Langley never pulled a trigger in its life but was very adept at getting its servitors to do this. All of this information stems directly from conversations with R. T. Crowley.
[79]            See the entries on AF1 (Air Force One) for 10 May, 24 May, 5 July 63 of the ZIPPER Document as reproduced in the Appendix.
[80]            See the entries on AF1 (Air Force One) for 2 May 63, 4:30pm-5:37pm, in the ZIPPER Document as reproduced in the Appendix.
[81]            The document actually covers the period from March to November 1963. According to personal information received from R. T. Crowley, the choice of ZIPPER was his. He said that since Kennedy could not keep his zipper shut, the CIA would do it for him. Originally, he wanted to call the plot “Operation JANUS” after the two-faced Roman god (a reference to Kennedy’s perceived duplicity) but decided that his co-workers were far too ill-educated to understand it.
[82]            See ZIPPER Document, 16, 19, 20 March, 4 April (3:35pm), 9 April (9:08am), 18 April (2:01pm, 2:25pm), 23 & 24 April, 2 May, 6 May (11:10am c.), 10 May, 19 June (1:45pm), 24 Oct. 1963.
[83]            The Sicilian Mafia appears to have been the first option, see ZIPPER Document, 4 April 63 (3:35pm)
[84]            See ZIPPER Document, 2 May (4:09pm), 10 May, 12 June (4:11pm), 16 July (1:45pm), 24 Oct., 14 Nov. 1963.
[85]            For information on the Unione Corse and its connection with drugs and the CIA, see also J. Nutter, op. cit. (note 37), pp. 180f.
[86]            The FBI is listed as a “government department directly concerned”, see ZIPPER Document, no. 8.b. Though Hoover himself was only a few times directly involved with operation ZIPPER (4 & 15 March, as well as no. 12), it is obvious that Hoover’s assistantt Sullivan was a permanent part of the plot, since he is even listed as a recipient of the ZIPPER Document itself, and because his name is mentioned on many occasions: no. 12; 4, 7, 12 (8:30am) & 29 March (2:35pm), 30 April, 2 & 10 May.
[87]            See ZIPPER Document, 13, 14, 15, 18 March (9:30am) 25, 28 March (4:45, 4:55pm), 11 April (11:45am), 15 April (5:20pm), 30 April (9:31am), 6 May (11:10am a.), 31 May (1:35pm), 11, 12 June (5:30pm), 26 June (9:30am).
[88]            See ZIPPER Document, 18 March (9:30am), which apparently refers to the handover of copies of files compiled by the attorney General Robert F. Kennedy regarding Bobby Baker; see also the more explicit entry on 5 May, no. 8.
[89]            Compare this with Hoover’s Memorandum, note 14, and R. T. Crowley’s Aide-Mémoire, see Appendix.
[90]            ZIPPER Document, no. 11-13.
[91]            This information was gratefully obtained from a source inside the U.S. intelligence community, which cannot be revealed here for legal and privacy reasons.
[92]            ZIPPER Document, 9 April (8:31am), 14 April, 24 April (3:09pm), 5 May, 6 May (11:10am), 25, 28 May (8:32am), 31 May (3:00pm), 12 June (12:30pm), 25, 26 June (11:30am), 31 July (9:40am),
[93]            As a less important conspirator, we should mention Allen Dulles, the former head of the CIA, see ZIPPER Document, 19, 31 July (9:40am). He, too, had no problem with the concept of the removal of the man who had removed him as head of the CIA. In the event of the President’s death, he fully expected to be called back to duty although he was not in particularly good health.
[94]            See ZIPPER document: participants/recipients, no. 7.; 14, 16 March (3:32pm), 29 March (6:60pm[sic!]), 14, 15 April (12:35pm), 10, 25 May, 24, 25 June, 5 July, 31 July (11:30 am): “transfer operation to WKH”, 9, 16, 23, 30 August, 6, 12, 20, 27 Sept., 18 Oct., 1, 14 Nov.
[95]            See ZIPPER document, 3 April.
[96]            An excellent overview of the CIA/Israeli intelligence cooperation can be found in P. Grose, op. cit. (note 32), pp. 422-424.
[97]            See ZIPPER document, 3, 4, 16 July (1:45pm), 17 July, .
[98]            See Foreign Relations of the United States, 1961-1963, Vol. XVII, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1994.
[99]            See ZIPPER document, no. 9.d.; 18 March (8:44am), 13, 15 April (12:35), 18 April (1:23pm), 6 May (11:10am d.), 14 May, 24 June, 17 July (9:45am). A full listing of CIA proprietary businesses were in the Crowley Papers but are not included in this work.
[100]          A number of important CIA agents and sources lived in Warrenton, including Heinrich Müller, former Gestapo Chief, see note 47 and Crowley Papers.
[101]          Oswald’s Marine Corps Personnel Records indicate that he barely qualified as a rifle man.
[102]          See Warren Report, op. cit. (note 1) for stories about the Oswald public appearances with the Carcano, e.g., on the license, p. 266.
[103]          Warren Report, op. cit. (note 1), pp. 301ff.; G. Posner, op. cit. (note 6), pp. 170-176, 211-212.

[105]          N. Burleigh, op. cit. (note 74), pp. 234ff.
[106]          N. Burleigh, op. cit. (note 74), makes references to mysterious “men in suits” at the murder scene and the fact that newsmen were kept at a distance during the investigation. Plates following p. 182 and comments in the text.
[107]          Ibid., pp. 273ff.
[108]          Ibid., pp. 209ff.; T. C. Reeves, op. cit. (note 3), pp. 240f.
[109]          T. C. Reeves, ibid., N. Burleigh, op. cit. (note 74), pp. 193 et seq.
[110]          R. T. Crowley, private communication to the author, and N. Burleigh, op. cit. (note 74), p. 282.
[111]          ZIPPER Document, no. 6.
[112]          See footnote 63.
[113]          J. Nutter, op. cit. (note 37), p. 300.

 

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